# 1 1 BASICS OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT Section A - Energy Basics.

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1 1 BASICS OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT Section A - Energy Basics

2 2 These resource materials were developed by the Kentucky Pollution Prevention Center at the University of Louisville for KEEPS – Kentucky Energy Efficiency Programs for Schools – with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Kentucky Department for Energy Development and Independence. Basics of Energy Management

3 3 Electricity Units Watt (W) Electrical unit of power Kilowatt (kW) Unit of power equivalent to 1,000 watts of electrical demand Kilowatt-hour (kWh) Amount of energy consumed when 1,000 watts are used for one hour

4 4 Basics of Energy Management Electric Demand Components Demand Period Time interval during which flow of electricity is measured (usually in 15-, 30- or 60-minute increments depending on rate structure) Peak Demand Highest average demand over the demand period in the billing period Electric Load Factor (ELF) Indicates if peak demand is high for the facility

5 5 Basics of Energy Management Electric Demand Profile

6 6 Basics of Energy Management Natural Gas Units Btu: British thermal unit MMBtu: Million British thermal unit Btu/hr: British thermal unit per hour CCF: Hundred cubic feet 10 CCF = 1 MMBtu Dth: Dekatherm 1 dth = 1 MMBtu or ~10 CCF

7 Conversion – Apples to Apples Horsepower (hp) = 745.6 watts Motor hp = 2,545 Btu/hr Boiler hp = 33,475 Btu/hr Cooling ton = 12,000 Btu/hr 1 kilowatt = 3,412.3 Btu/hr Basics of Energy Management

8 Efficiency Work done divided by work put into the system Efficiency Terms work out work in = % Efficacy Measure of performance using units lumens/watt for lighting kW/ton for chillers Basics of Energy Management

9 HVAC Efficiency – COP Coefficient of Performance (COP) Measurement of how efficiently a heating or cooling system operates at a single outdoor temperature condition Temperature condition for heat pumps = 47°F Heat PumpChiller Btu of heat produced (47 F) Btu of electricity used (47 F) 3.516 kW/ton Methods to calculate COP Basics of Energy Management

10 HVAC Efficiency – EER Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) Measurement of how efficiently a cooling system operates when the outdoor temperature is at a specific level (95°F) Commonly used when referring to: air conditioners (window, unitary) heat pumps (window, unitary, water-source, geothermal) Btu/hr cooling at 95°F watts used at 95°F Method to calculate EER Basics of Energy Management

11 Conversion - Apples to Apples Btu of cooling produced Wh of electricity used EER = Energy or heat output (total) Energy or heat input (external) COP = EER 3,412 Btu/Wh COP = Basics of Energy Management

12 HVAC Efficiency – SEER Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) Measurement of how efficiently a residential central cooling system operates over an entire cooling season air conditioner or heat pump Not to be confused with EER Split cooling system SEER must be greater than 13, effective 2006 seasonal Btu of cooling seasonal watt-hours used Method to calculate SEER Basics of Energy Management

13 HVAC Efficiency – HSPF Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) Measurement of how efficiently all residential and some commercial heat pumps operate in their heating mode over an entire normal heating season Btu of heat produced over heating season watt-hours of electricity used over heating season Method to calculate HSPF Basics of Energy Management

14 HVAC Efficiency – AFUE Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) Measurement of how efficiently a gas furnace or boiler operates over an entire heating season Percentage of energy consumed by system that is actually converted to useful heat AFUE for most gas furnaces must be at least 78% Btu of heat produced over heating season Btu of natural gas used over heating season Method to calculate AFUE Basics of Energy Management

15 Energy Accounting Terms Energy Use Index (EUI): Btu/ft 2 /year Use when tracking energy savings Energy Cost Index (ECI): \$/ft 2 /year Use when comparing within your district must be a small district with single utility provider Basics of Energy Management

16 Energy and the Environment 1 lb of coal burned produces 1 to 1.25 kWh *100 lb/yr of coal not burned* T12 (34W) upgrade to Super-T8 (32W) for 10 fixtures with four lamps per fixture Basics of Energy Management

17 Review of Energy Basics Electric Units – kW, kWh, peak demand, ELF Natural Gas Units – CCF, MMBtu, dth HVAC Efficiency – COP, EER, SEER, HSPF, AFUE Energy Accounting – EUI and ECI Energy and the Environment 1 lb coal burned produces about 1 to 1.25 kWh Basics of Energy Management

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