Tube lights in use presently in India are T12 (40w) & T8 (36W) T12 implies that the tube diameter is 12/8 (33.8mm), T8 implies diameter of 8/8 (26mm) and T5 implies diameter of 5/8 (16mm). This means that the T5 lamp is slimmer than 36W slim tube The advantage of the T5 lamps is that due to its small dia luminaire efficiencies can be improved by about 5%. However, these lamps are 50mm shorter than T12 and T8 which implies that the existing luminaires cannot be used
LED panel lamps for neon bulbs Panel indicator lamps are used widely in industries for monitoring, fault indication, signaling, etc. Conventionally filament lamps, which has got the following disadvantages High energy consumption (15 W/lamp) Failure of lamps is high (Operating life less- 10,000 hrs. Very sensitive to voltage fluctuations The LEDs have the following merits over filament lamps. Lesser power consumption (Less than 1 W/lamp) Withstand high voltage fluctuation in power supply. Longer operating life (more than 1,00,000 hours) It is recommended to install LEDs for panel at design stage
Lighting loss - examples Electronic ballast in place of conventional choke gives savings of 20% CFL amp in place of GLS lamp saves 70 % Illumination levels fall by 20 – 30 % due to collection of dust. Clean lamps & fixtures 36 W Vs 40 W tube light saves 8 – 10 % Sodium vapor lamps in place of mercury vapor lamps for area lighting application saves up to 40 %
The Inverse Square Law The inverse square law defines the relationship between the luminance from a point source and distance. It states that the intensity of light per unit area is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source (essentially the radius). E = Luminance, I = Luminous intensity and d = distance An alternate form, taken conveniently : E1 d1² = E2 d2² You measure 10.0 lm/m² from a light bulb at 1.0 meter. What will the flux density be at half the distance? Soln. E1m = (d2 / d1)² * E2 = (1.0 / 0.5)² * 10.0 = 40 lm/m²
Variation in Light Output and Power Consumption Particulars 10% lower voltage 10% higher voltage Fluorescent lamps Light output Decreases by 9 % Increases by 8 % Power input Decreases by 15 % Increases by 8 % HPMV lamps Light output Decreases by 20 % Increases by 20 % Power input Decreases by 16 % Increases by 17 % Mercury Blended lamps Light output Decreases by 24 % Increases by 30 % Power input Decreases by 20 % Increases by 20 % Metal Halide lamps Light output Decreases by 30 % Increases by 30 % Power input Decreases by 20 % Increases by 20 % HPSV lamps Light output Decreases by 28 % Increases by 30 % Power input Decreases by 20 % Increases by 26 % LPSV lamps Light output Decreases by 4 % Decreases by 2 % Power input Decreases by 8 % Increases by 3 %
Light pipe: This is a reflective tube that brings clean light from the sky into a room, These are Aluminum tubes having sliver lining inside. One 13 light pipe can illuminate about 250 sq.ft of floor area with an luminance of 200 lux. A 4 ft length of light pipe of the above size provides a daytime average of 750 watts of the emerging technologies.
Use of atrium with FRP dome in the basic architecture can eliminate the use of electrical lights in passages of tall buildings.
Low Loss Electromagnetic Chokes for Tube Lights The loss in standard electromagnetic choke of a tube light is likely to be 10 to 15 Watts. Use of low loss electromagnetic chokes can save about 8 to 10 Watts per tube light. The saving is due to the use of more copper & low loss steel laminations in choke, leading to lower losses Many industries have implemented this measure.
The most important element in a light fitting is the reflector. They impact on how much of the lamps light reaches the area to be lit as well as the lighting distribution pattern. Reflectors are generally either diffuse (painted or powder coated white finish) or specular (polished or mirror-like). The degree of reflectance of the reflector material and the reflectors shape directly influence the effectiveness and efficiency of the fitting. Conventional diffuse reflectors have a reflectance of 70-80% Newer high reflect anchor semi-diffuse materials have reflectance high as 85%. Conventional diffusers absorb much of the light and scatter it rather than reflecting it to the area required.
Healthy Lighting Practices Separate switch for different applications: Install separate switches for smaller areas. Often in large buildings, dozens of lights are controlled by a single switch, and not all of them need to be on. These lights can be rewired into small groups of lights, fans etc. Best of lights. Remove excess lights. Many older office and warehouse buildings have more lighting than needed. In many areas, half the light may be sufficient to light the area. When removing excess tubes, remember to disconnect ballasts that serve them. Saving through occupancy sensors. In rooms that are not occupied constantly, such as conference rooms, lunchrooms and bathrooms, occupancy sensors will automatically turn lights on when people enter the room and off after they leave. Lighting accounts for 40 percent of energy used in office buildings.
PCRA MISSION & OBJECTIVE Mission : - Efficient Energy Utilisation & Environmental Protection to improve Quality of Life Objective : - Promote the Ways to Conserve & Create ENERGY AWARENESS among the Public & the Industry
Conserve Energy & Serve Nation www.pcra.org www.energymanagertraining.com Please go through the Govt. Website And you will find mine & more articles on Industry Thank You -S.ASHOK, PCRA Faculty BEE certified Energy Auditor COIMBATORE – 05. call : - 9 4 4 3 7 - 2 0 2 2 0 email : email@example.com@gmail.com For more details please visit my site www.energymeasuretosave.com