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Lamps Arch 433. Choose work you love and you will never have to work a day in your life Confucius.

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Presentation on theme: "Lamps Arch 433. Choose work you love and you will never have to work a day in your life Confucius."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lamps Arch 433

2 Choose work you love and you will never have to work a day in your life Confucius

3 Getting Along

4 Honda Insight - 65 Toyota Pyrius – 48GMC Sierra – 12Jeep Cherokee – 24 0102030405060 Miles/gallon SOURCELUMEN EFFICACY (lumens/watts) Candle (equivalent)0.01 Oil Lamp (equivalent)0.03 Edison lamp (1879)1.4 Carbonized bamboo (18792.0 Carbonized cellulose (1891)3.0 Metalized (Gem) (1905)4.0 Drawn Tungsten (1911)10.0 60W Tungsten C.C. (1968)14.7 Filament Lamp (1970)10 - 18 Tungsten Halogen (1980)17 - 22 Stage/Studio Lamps (1980)20 - 40 Cooper-Hewitt Lamp (1901)13.0 Mercury Lamp (modern)55 - 60 Fluorescent Lamp (1938)65 -100 Metal Halide Lamp85 -120 HPS Lamp80 -140 LPS Lamp120 -200 Efficacy Lumens per watt of a light source The higher the lumen efficacy, the more efficient the source is at producing light

5 Color Rendering Index (CRI) The Color Rendering Index (CRI) is a relative measure of the shift in surface color of an object when lit by a particular lamp, compared with how the object would appear under a reference light source of similar color temperature. The higher the CRI of the light source, the "truer" it renders color

6 Lamp Life A statistical probability Based on: A representative sample of lights Typical conditions Rated in hours Time elapsed when 50% remain burning Example If a lamp had a rating of 1000 hours: After 1000 hours half of the sample of lamps have burned out while the other half remains operational

7 Lamp Lumen Depreciation (LLD) Light output declines with time This loss of light is called Lumen Depreciation

8 Factors that affect Lamp Operation Strike Ambient Temperatures Voltage Interruptions Wattage/Voltage Changes Dimming Increased Watts or Volts Burning Position

9 Incandescent Components Tungsten filament Acts as a resistor In parallel changes amps by impedance inductive reactance and conductor resistance Glass Globe w/ inert gasses Argon or krypton w/ small amounts of nitrogen Add bromine or iodine with a quartz covering – Tungsten Halogen lamp Lamp base

10 Types of Incandescent General Service or Extend Life Projector (PAR) Parabolic reflectors Reflectors (R) Elliptical Reflectors (ER) Tungsten Halogen

11 Common Shapes w/ Designations

12 Common Bases

13 Remember Who We Are…

14 Feel like an Imposter!

15 Getting Along

16 Performance Not affected by temperatures Voltage sensitive Strike sensitive - Dimming Excellent color rendering (CRI) Lumen depreciation - on average, lamps retain 87% of their lumens after 70% rated life Low Rated Life Efficacy 10 – 30 Lumens per watt GMC Sierra – 12

17 If there was something

18 Fluorescent Components Mercury arc discharge Cathodes Argon gas w/ mercury Phosphor coating on tube Ultraviolet light created by the mercury arc excites the phosphor coating and creates visible light Mixtures of different phosphors give varying colors Requires a ballast limit and regulate current flow

19 Ballast


21 Ballast Starter

22 Ballast

23 The basic ballast is nothing more than a current limiting device. For 50 and 60 Hz applications, the most common current limiting device is an inductor Magnetic Electronic

24 Types of Fluorescents Shapes Tubular (T) U – Shaped (U) Circline (C) Types Preheat Few second delay - Bi pin base Instant Start Single pin base Rapid Start Slight delay – bi pin High and Very High Output (increased arc) (HO, VHO) Recessed base – 800 mA to 1500 mA – more light, less efficacy Note: Residential – 120V Commercial – 277V

25 Generic Designations F20 = fluorescent 20 watts (U, C) F42 = Fluorescent 42 long (instant start slimline) T8 = tubular 8/8 = 1inch diameter, RS = Rapid Start WW = warm white (cw, wwx, etc.) Warning: Be sure to check w/ manufacturer

26 Generic Designations The "T" in lamp nomenclature designates that the lamp is tubular shaped. The number following the "T" usually represents the diameter of the lamp in eighths of an inch.

27 New DOE Standards Effective July 14, 2012: Lamp TypeWattsColor TemperatureMin. Lumens/Watt 4-foot (T5) miniature bi-pin >26W<4500K >4500K and <7000K 86.0 81.0 Prior to July 14, 2012 DOE Standards Lamp TypeWattsMin. CRIMin. Lumens/Watt 4-foot medium bi-pin >35W69 45 75.0

28 Performance Temperature sensitive Strike sensitive (3hrs) Poor color rendering Long rated life (up to 24,000) Lumen depreciation - on average, lamps retain 87% of their lumens after 40% rated life; eventually get dimmer & dimmer Good Efficacy 60 – 100 lumens per watt Poor beam control Dimming expensive

29 Residential Usage Remember strike and ambient temperatures!

30 High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps Three distinct categories Mercury Metal Halide High Pressure Sodium Characteristics High Efficacy Long Life High Lamp Lumen Depreciation Require ballasts Low CRI

31 Mercury HID Mercury arcs Starting time 3-5 minutes Green-blue light Considerable lamp decay Eventually dim out After 24,000 – 50% Long Life Burning position – any Landscaping uses

32 Metal Halide HID Mixtures Mercury, sodium, thallium, scandium, etc. Starting time The greatest up to 5 minutes Bright greenish white Decay of metals Decline of lumens very gradual Burning position is critical Sports lighting, commercial

33 Do you every feel small

34 High/Low Pressure Sodium HID Sodium arc Starting time 3-5 minutes Yellow – golden white Very low CRI Very high efficacy Up to 140 lumens/watt for HP Up to 200 lumens/watt for LP Burning position – any Sport lighting, garages Honda Insight - 65

35 Sodium HID Diagram of a high pressure sodium lamp

36 Lamp Comparison - Color

37 Lamp Comparisons – Life/Cost

38 Lamp Comparison Lamp Life Efficacy ef·fi·ca·cy the power to produce an effect

39 OOPS!


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