Presentation on theme: "HOW DOES THE BODY MAINTAIN ITS NORMAL TEMPERATURE? The body gains heat from the conversion of food into energy (metabolism), from external heat sources."— Presentation transcript:
HOW DOES THE BODY MAINTAIN ITS NORMAL TEMPERATURE? The body gains heat from the conversion of food into energy (metabolism), from external heat sources and by muscle activity In hot conditions blood vessels dilate allowing excess heat to be lost through the skin (sweating) and by increasing our breathing rate In cold conditions the blood vessels contract which reduces sweating. EFFECTS OF HEAT AND COLD
RECOGNITION OF HYPOTHERMIA Shivering at first that will cease as the condition progresses. This usually occurs when the body temperature is between 29 and 34 degrees Celsius Cold, pale and dry skin Slow shallow breathing Slow weak pulse Strange irrational behaviour Lethargy Unconsciousness leading to cardiac arrest. In prolonged exposure to cold, wet and windy conditions the core body temperature may fall below 35 degrees Celsius causing normal bodily functions to slow down and eventually stop. This is known as hypothermia Effects of the cold TREATMENT Remove the casualty to a sheltered and warm place Keep the casualty in a horizontal position Insulate them from the ground and surroundings Treat for shock Cover with blankets but do not overheat Prevent heat escaping from the head and extremities Call 999/112 and monitor Do not give any food or drink Do not rub the skin or put near a heat source Do not walk them around Do not overheat, warm slowly In the case of mild hypothermia you could give the child a warm drink.
When the internal body temperature (core temperature) exceeds 37 degrees celsius, the levels of water and salts within the body begin to drop. If after a period of time there has been an insufficient or inadequate replacement of these fluids this can lead to heat exhaustion. Effects of heat – heat exhaustion HEAT EXHAUSTION RECOGNITION Headache Confusion Sweating with pale clammy skin Muscle cramps in the abdomen and limbs Rapid weakening pulse and breathing Temperature around 39 degrees Celsius. The child may say they feel cold, but they are hot to touch. TREATMENT Place in the shade or a cool environment Remove outer clothing and cover with a cold wet sheet Give the child water to rehydrate them Dial 999/112 for an ambulance Ensure adequate ventilation or fan the casualty Be prepared to carry out your procedures for Basic Life Support
Effects of heat – heat stroke When there is a failure of the thermostat in the brain, the bodys temperature will rise above 40 degrees celsius. This may have been brought on by uncontrollable heat exhaustion, prolonged exposure to high temperatures or as a result of an illness or fever. If this is not treated immediately brain damage can occur. This is known as heatstroke. HEAT STROKE RECOGNITION Headache Confusion and general discomfort Hot, flushed and dry skin Body temperature above 40 degrees celcius (the brain starts to swell) Rapid deterioration A full, bounding pulse Slow and noisy breathing Response levels deteriorate rapidly TREATMENT Place in the shade or a cool environment Remove outer clothing and cover with a cold wet sheet Dial 999/112 for an ambulance Ensure adequate ventilation or fan the casualty Be prepared to carry out your procedures for Basic Life Support Heatstroke is a serious condition that can deteriorate rapidly so urgent medical attention is required.