Presentation on theme: "EFFECTS OF HEAT AND COLD"— Presentation transcript:
1EFFECTS OF HEAT AND COLD HOW DOES THE BODY MAINTAIN ITS NORMAL TEMPERATURE?The body gains heat from the conversion of food into energy (metabolism), from external heat sources and by muscle activityIn hot conditions blood vessels dilate allowing excess heat to be lost through the skin (sweating) and by increasing our breathing rateIn cold conditions the blood vessels contract which reduces sweating.
2Effects of the coldIn prolonged exposure to cold, wet and windy conditions the core body temperature may fall below 35 degrees Celsius causing normal bodily functions to slow down and eventually stop. This is known as hypothermiaRECOGNITION OF HYPOTHERMIAShivering at first that will cease as the condition progresses. This usually occurs when the body temperature is between 29 and 34 degrees CelsiusCold, pale and dry skinSlow shallow breathingSlow weak pulseStrange irrational behaviourLethargyUnconsciousness leading to cardiac arrest.TREATMENTRemove the casualty to a sheltered and warm placeKeep the casualty in a horizontal positionInsulate them from the ground and surroundingsTreat for shockCover with blankets but do not overheatPrevent heat escaping from the head and extremitiesCall 999/112 and monitorDo not give any food or drinkDo not rub the skin or put near a heat sourceDo not walk them aroundDo not overheat, warm slowlyIn the case of mild hypothermia you could give the child a warm drink.
3Effects of heat – heat exhaustion When the internal body temperature (core temperature) exceeds 37 degrees celsius, the levels of water and salts within the body begin to drop. If after a period of time there has been an insufficient or inadequate replacement of these fluids this can lead to heat exhaustion.HEAT EXHAUSTION RECOGNITIONHeadacheConfusionSweating with pale clammy skinMuscle cramps in the abdomen and limbsRapid weakening pulse and breathingTemperature around 39 degrees Celsius.The child may say they “feel cold”, but they are hot to touch.TREATMENTPlace in the shade or a cool environmentRemove outer clothing and cover with a cold wet sheetGive the child water to rehydrate themDial 999/112 for an ambulanceEnsure adequate ventilation or fan the casualtyBe prepared to carry out your procedures for Basic Life Support
4Effects of heat – heat stroke When there is a failure of the thermostat in the brain, the body’s temperature will rise above 40 degrees celsius. This may have been brought on by uncontrollable heat exhaustion, prolonged exposure to high temperatures or as a result of an illness or fever. If this is not treated immediately brain damage can occur. This is known as heatstroke.HEAT STROKE RECOGNITIONHeadacheConfusion and general discomfortHot, flushed and dry skinBody temperature above 40 degrees celcius (the brain starts to swell)Rapid deteriorationA full, bounding pulseSlow and noisy breathingResponse levels deteriorate rapidlyTREATMENTPlace in the shade or a cool environmentRemove outer clothing and cover with a cold wet sheetDial 999/112 for an ambulanceEnsure adequate ventilation or fan the casualtyBe prepared to carry out your procedures for Basic Life SupportHeatstroke is a serious condition that can deteriorate rapidly so urgent medical attention is required.