3 Skin Injuries Skin Is the largest organ in the body Protect the body from injury and infection Maintain a constant body temperature Layers of the skin Epidermis – outer layer Dermis – inner layer Subcutaneous fats, nerves, blood vessels, muscles, and bones
5 Skin Injuries Burns Types of burns Scald Friction burn Electrical burn Chemical burn Radiation burn
6 Skin Injuries Burns Objectives To remove heat and relieve pain Maintain open airway Treat associated injuries/shock Minimize risk of infection Transport of casualty to hospital
7 Skin Injuries Burns Depth of Burn - Superficial - Partial Thickness - Full thickness
8 Skin Injuries Burns Treatment Cool the affected part with water for at least 10 minutes Continue cooling until the pain is relieved. Remove jewelries and clothing on the affected skin if it is not stuck to it before the injured part swells Cover to prevent infection Monitor vital signs and treat for shock if any
9 Skin Injuries Burns Treatment (severe burns) Ensure casualty lie on the ground Burnt area should not be in contact with the ground Urgent removal to hospital Treatment (burns to airway) Ensure open airway – loosening of clothing around the neck Give ice or small sips of cold water to reduce swelling
10 Skin Injuries Burns Treatment (chemical burns) Wash the burn area with water for 20 mins Remove contaminated clothing before dousing the burn area. Precaution Do not remove anything sticking to the burn Do not touch the burn area Do not burst any blisters Do not apply lotions, ointment, fat, or adhesive tapes to the burnt area Do not neutralize acids and alkali unless trained
11 Skin Injuries Electrocution Types of Electrical Current Low Voltage – Homes. High Voltage – Power lines, overhead high tension cable.
12 Skin Injuries Electrocution High Voltage Current Signs and Symptoms Fatal Burns Unconscious Fractures – casualty thrown some distance on contact with current
13 Skin Injuries Electrocution (High Voltage) Precaution High voltage electricity may move and jump up to 18m. The power must be terminated and isolated before approaching. Maintain safe distance for spectators Treatment Unconscious – open airway CPR to revive heart and lungs Monitor pulse and respiration every 10 minutes. Seek medical attention
14 Skin Injuries Electrocution Low Voltage Current Signs and Symptoms Burns at entry and exit points of the body. Unconscious
15 Skin Injuries Electrocution (Low Voltage) Precaution DO NOT TOUCH THE PATIENT Break the contact between the casualty and electrical supply. Switch off Remove the electrical plug at the socket. Remove the cable manually at the unexposed side. Use non conducting material to remove wire.
16 Skin Injuries Electrocution (Low Voltage) Treatment Unconscious – open airway CPR to revive heart and lungs Treat external injuries Monitor pulse and respiration every ten minutes Seek medical attention
17 Skin Injuries Electrocution Lightning Electricity discharged from the atmosphere Outcome Death Fractures Clothing on fire
18 Skin Injuries Electrocution (Lightning) Treatment Clothing on fire – roll casualty on the floor to kill fire CPR – to revive heart and lungs Unconscious – maintain clear airway Fracture – immobilise Monitor pulse and respiration every ten minutes Seek medical attention
19 Skin Injuries Fever Overview Fever is higher-than-normal body temperature (Normal temperature - 37˚C ) Indicates an abnormal process in the body Fever is a symptom and not a disease.
20 Skin Injuries Fever Causes Hot weather Childhood immunization or adult vaccination Bacterial/viral infection Allergy to medication
21 Skin Injuries Fever Symptoms Hot flushed face Lack of appetite in food Nausea Vomiting Head and body ache Constipation Diarrhea High fever can bring about: Delirium or confusion Fits
22 Skin Injuries Fever Treatment Monitor temperature using a thermometer Remove excess clothing Keep the person in a cool place Give a sponge bath in tepid water Give plenty of fluids Do not wrap the person in blankets / warm clothing Seek medical attention
23 Skin Injuries Heat Stroke Failure of the thermostat in the brain, which regulates body temperature Is a life threatening emergency Causes High fever Prolonged exposure to heat
24 Skin Injuries Heat Stroke Signs and symptoms Headache, dizziness, and discomfort Restlessness and confusion Hot, flushed, and dry skin Decrease in level of response Bounding pulse Body temperature above 40 degrees Celsius
25 Skin Injuries Heat Stroke Treatment Remove the casualty to a cooler place Remove as much of the clothing as possible Wrap the casualty in a cold wet sheet. Keep it wet till the temperature decrease to 38 degrees Celsius Once the temp decreases, replace the wet sheet with a dry one Monitor vital signs It the temperature rises again, repeat the process
26 Skin Injuries Heat Exhaustion Loss of salt and water from the body due to excessive sweating. It is more common than heat stroke First aid objective To replace body fluids and salt Decrease temperature if necessary
27 Skin Injuries Heat Exhaustion Signs and symptoms Headache, dizziness, and confusion Nausea and loss of appetite Hot, flushed, and dry skin Sweating with pale clammy skin Cramps on the legs, arms or abdominal wall Rapid, weakening pulse and breathing
28 Skin Injuries Treatment for heat exhaustion (1 teaspoon of salt in 1 liter of water)
29 CS Spray (2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile) Solvent spray used by police forces for riot control and self protection It irritates the eyes and upper airway May cause vomiting Effect wears off in 15 minutes Use on asthma patient, can bring about asthmatic attack Skin Injuries Chemical Spray
30 Signs and symptoms Tearing Coughing and sneezing Burning sensation in the skin and throat Chest tightness and breathlessness Skin Injuries Chemical Spray
31 Treatment Move to well ventilated area Reassure casualty Prevent casualty rubbing his eyes Fan the eyes to speed up evaporation of chenicals Seek medical help Skin Injuries Chemical Spray
32 Precaution Washing the eye is not necessary as it may prolong the irritation Prevent rubbing of the affected eye Skin Injuries Chemical Spray
The End Module 7 Skin Injuries For training purpose only Not for sale
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