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© 2011 National Safety Council COLD AND HEAT EMERGENCIES LESSON 20 20-1
© 2011 National Safety Council Mechanisms For Staying Warm Metabolic processes -Most body heat produced this way Contraction of muscle tissue -Including shivering Vasoconstriction -Less radiation of heat away from skin 20-2
© 2011 National Safety Council Mechanisms For Staying Cool Vasodilation -More warm blood to surface of skin to be radiated away -Primary heat loss method Sweating -Evaporation from skin surface cools body 20-3
© 2011 National Safety Council Cold Emergencies Frostbite Hypothermia 20-4
© 2011 National Safety Council Frostbite Freezing of skin or deeper tissues More common in exposed skin areas (head, hands, feet) Wind chill increases risk Severe frostbite kills tissue and can result in gangrene and amputation 20-5
© 2011 National Safety Council First Aid for Frostbite 1.Move victim to warm environment. 2.Remove constricting items. 3.Put dry gauze or fluffy cloth between frostbitten fingers or toes. Protect area. 4.Seek medical attention immediately. 5.Elevate area if possible. 6.Only if medical care delayed, rewarm area. 20-6
© 2011 National Safety Council Rewarming Frostbite If help is delayed, rewarm severe frostbite by immersing area in lukewarm water for 20 – 30 minutes Do not apply direct heat source to skin -Do this only if there is no risk of refreezing 20-7
© 2011 National Safety Council Hypothermia Occurs when body cannot make heat as fast as it loses it Body temperature < 95° F Can occur whenever and wherever person feels cold Progressive May occur gradually or quickly About 600 people die each year in United States 20-8
© 2011 National Safety Council Facts About Hypothermia Occurs more easily in elderly or ill people Those under influence of drugs or alcohol are more at risk Person immersed in cold water cools 30 times faster than in cool air Victims in cold water more likely to die from hypothermia than drowning 20-9
© 2011 National Safety Council Facts About Hypothermia continued Victims in cardiac arrest after immersion in cold water have been resuscitated after a long time underwater Don’t Give Up! 20-10
© 2011 National Safety Council Hypothermia: Early Signs and Symptoms Shivering Numbness Lethargy Poor coordination Slurred speech Infants may have bright red skin and little energy 20-11
© 2011 National Safety Council Hypothermia: Late Signs and Symptoms Shivering typically stops Victim may not feel cold Breathing becomes shallow Mental status deteriorates Victim may become unresponsive and stop breathing 20-12
© 2011 National Safety Council First Aid for Hypothermia continued 1.Get victim out of cold and out of wet clothes. 2.Have victim lie down and cover with blankets or warm clothing. 3.Seek immediate care. 4.Use active rewarming (but not immersion in hot water) only if far from care. 20-13
© 2011 National Safety Council Types of Heat Illness Heat cramps -Least serious and usually occurs first Heat exhaustion -Develops when body becomes dehydrated Heatstroke -Medical emergency -If untreated, can cause death 20-14
© 2011 National Safety Council Heat Emergencies Most occur during hot weather but can also occur in hot settings (furnace room, factory, vehicle) Average of 400 deaths/year Heatstroke is progressive – starts with milder symptoms but can lead to death 20-15
© 2011 National Safety Council Preventing Heat Emergencies Wear loose, lightweight clothing Rest frequently in cool or shady areas Drink fluids before, during and after activity Avoid alcohol and caffeine Drink sports drink during endurance activities Avoid exertion if overweight or elderly Acclimatize to new hot area During heat waves, check on those at risk Do not leave children or pets alone in vehicle Use sunscreen 20-16
© 2011 National Safety Council Heat Cramps Activity in hot environment can cause painful muscle cramps More common in lower legs or abdominal muscles Result when sweating lowers body’s sodium levels May accompany heat exhaustion and heatstroke 20-17
© 2011 National Safety Council Heat Exhaustion Heavy sweating may lead to dehydration and depletion of salt and electrolytes if person doesn’t drink enough fluids Unrelieved, may lead to heatstroke 20-18
© 2011 National Safety Council First Aid for Heat Exhaustion 1.Move victim from heat to rest in cool place. Loosen or remove clothing. 2.Cool victim with wet cloths, or spraying or sponging with cool water. 3.Give sports drink or water. 20-19
© 2011 National Safety Council Heatstroke Life-threatening emergency More common during hot, summer periods May develop slowly over days or more rapidly with strenuous activity Victim may be dehydrated and not sweating or may be sweating heavily Causes body temperatures ≥ 104° F 20-20
© 2011 National Safety Council 20-21 Heatstroke continued
© 2011 National Safety Council Signs and Symptoms: Heat Exhaustion and Heatstroke Heat Exhaustion Skin is pale, or ashen and clammy Victim dizzy or tired or may be irritable and have a headache Heatstroke Skin is flushed and feels hot to touch Victim becomes confused and irrational and may become unresponsive or have convulsions 20-22
© 2011 National Safety Council First Aid for Heatstroke 1.Call 9-1-1. 2.Move victim to cool place. 3.Remove outer clothing. 4.Cool victim quickly, preferably by immersion up to neck in cold water or other methods. 20-23
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