Presentation on theme: "H EAT E MERGENCIES. OBJECTIVES By the end of this lecture, the students would be able to: Describe heatstroke, heat exhaustion, and heat cramps. Determine."— Presentation transcript:
OBJECTIVES By the end of this lecture, the students would be able to: Describe heatstroke, heat exhaustion, and heat cramps. Determine signs and symptoms of heatstroke, heat exhaustion, and heat cramps. Describe appropriate first aid care for heatstroke, heat exhaustion, and heat cramps.
I NTRODUCTION Heatstroke occurs when the body's temperature becomes dangerously high due to excessive heat exposure. Heatstroke results in core hyperthermia above 40°C. The body is no longer able to cool itself and starts to overheat. Heatstroke is a more serious condition than heat exhaustion.
S IGNS AND S YMPTOMS Signs and symptoms of heatstroke include dry skin, vertigo, confusion, headache, thirst, nausea, rapid shallow breathing (hyperventilation) and muscle cramps. Heatstroke victims usually have a compromised level of consciousness.
F IRST A ID C ARE Initiate EMS. Remove the victim from heat source to a cool area, if possible. Establish an airway, support breathing and circulation. Increase ventilation by opening windows or using a fan. Give water to drink (if the person is conscious), but don't give them medication, such as aspirin or Paracetamol.
Shower the victim’s skin with cool, but not cold, water (15-18°C); alternatively, cover the victim’s body with cool, damp/moist towels or sheets, or immerse the victim’s body in cool water (not cold). Never give the victim hot drinks. Monitor the victim’s temperature while awaiting EMS.
I NTRODUCTION Heat exhaustion is a more common and less extreme manifestation of heat-related illness in which the core temperature is between 37°C and 40°C. Heat exhaustion is caused by a loss of body fluids and salts after being exposed to heat for a prolonged period of time. Heat exhaustion occurs when a victim experiences extreme fatigue/tiredness as a result of a decrease in blood pressure and blood volume.
S IGNS AND S YMPTOMS Signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion are milder than those of heatstroke, and include: dizziness, thirst, weakness, headache, and malaise. The victim may feel sick, faint and sweat heavily. The most critical problem in heat exhaustion is dehydration.
F IRST A ID C ARE Activate EMS. Move the victim to a cool place. Remove outer clothing. Place patient supine, raise feet 20-30 cm. If conscious, provide cool water or sports drink. ½ glass every ten minutes for one hour Monitor temperature every 10–15 minutes.
I NTRODUCTION Heat cramp is the least serious heat emergency. Heat cramps result from disturbances to salt, calcium, electrolytes, or fluid levels. Muscles tend to cramp but not relax. Hot weather is not a prerequisite.
F IRST A ID C ARE Remove the victim from hot environment, if possible. Instruct victim to rest. Administer sips of water or sports drink. ½ glass every fifteen minutes Place moist towels to forehead and cramping muscles. Stretching muscles may help relieve pain. Activate EMS if victim does not respond or deteriorates.