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Types of chemical reactions Knowing the different types of reactions gives you the ability to predict what the products will be after the chemical reactions.

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Presentation on theme: "Types of chemical reactions Knowing the different types of reactions gives you the ability to predict what the products will be after the chemical reactions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of chemical reactions Knowing the different types of reactions gives you the ability to predict what the products will be after the chemical reactions. Remember: In all chemical reactions mass, charge and energy are conserved.

2 Synthesis NOTES 2 or more substances combine to form a more complex substance Can be written in the general form: Also called a combination reaction A + B AB

3 Putting Puzzle Pieces Together Synthesis Reaction

4 Fe + S FeS 2Mg + O 2 H 2 O + SO 3 H 2 SO 4 2MgO

5 NOTES Decomposition 1 substance breaks down into 2 or more simpler substances Can be written in the general form: Also known as an analysis reaction. AB A + B

6 Breaking Apart a Puzzle Decomposition Reaction

7 FeS Fe + S 2NaCl CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2 2Na + Cl 2

8 NOTES Single Replacement 1 element replaces another that is in a compound. There is ALWAYS a single element and a compound reacting. This can be written in the general form: A + BX B + AX

9 Sharing among Children Single Replacement Reaction

10 Zn + 2HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2 2Na + CuSO 4 Na 2 SO 4 + Cu Cl 2 + 2KBr 2KCl + Br 2

11 NOTES Double Replacement 2 substances in two compounds switch partners. A compound always reacts with a compound. This can be written in the general form: AB + CD AD + CB

12 Trading Double Replacement Reaction

13 NaCl + AgNO 3 NaNO 3 + AgCl 2K 3 PO 4 + 3CaS Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 3K 2 S

14 Solving Synthesis Reactions

15 Formula Writing In ionic bonds, an electron is transferred between the atoms. Example: Na Cl +1+1

16 Formula Writing We can get the charge of an atom by looking at the periodic table.

17 What is the charge of a phosphorous ion? What is the charge of a magnesium ion? What are the charges of the ions Lithium and Fluorine?

18 Formula Writing Once we have the charges, we crisscross the numbers to the subscript position. NaCl +1+1

19 Formula Writing So the final formula for sodium and chlorine is just NaCl

20 What is the formula for Na and Br? What is the formula for Mg and Cl? What is the formula for Rh and O?

21 Solving Equations So now we can write formulas We can identify synthesis reactions Lets put it all together. H ????

22 Solving Equations H Step 1: Look up the oxidation states for each element on the periodic table.

23 Solving Equations H Step 2:Crisscross

24 Solving Equations H Step 3: Rewrite

25 Solving Equations H Step 4: Balance the Equation H2OH2O

26 Solve the following equation Na + F 2 ???

27 Solve the following equation H 2 + P ???

28 Solve the following equation Sr + N ???

29 NOTES Decomposition 1 substance breaks down into 2 or more simpler substances AB A + B

30 Breaking Apart a Puzzle Decomposition Reaction

31 FeS Fe + S 2NaCl CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2 2Na + Cl 2

32 Decomposition Reactions Decomposition reactions are the same as synthesis reactions, only in reverse. 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O 2H 2 O 2H 2 + O 2

33 Diatomic Atoms When breaking a compound apart, you must remember that not all elements stay alone. Elements that naturally bond with themselves are called Diatomic H2H2 O2O2 N2N2 Br 2 I2I2 F2F2 Cl 2 I 2 Br 2 ing Cl 2 ay F 2 rom O 2 ur N 2 ew H 2 ouse

34 Decomposition Reactions NaCl SrF 2

35 Practice: Complete the following decomposition reactions 1. MgBr 2 2. Na 2 O 3. HCl

36 NOTES Single Replacement 1 substance in a compound replaces another. An element reacts with a compound. AB + C AC + B AB + C CB + A

37 Sharing among Children Single Replacement Reaction

38 Why do single replacement reactions occur? A more reactive element replaces a less reactive element NOTES

39 Zn + 2HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2 2Na + CuSO 4 Na 2 SO 4 + Cu Cl 2 + 2KBr 2KCl + Br 2

40 Single Replacement Reactions In a single replacement reaction, one element replaces another in a compound. Sr + 2HCl H 2 + SrCl 2

41 Formulas Remember, the first element in a compounds formula is the cation (positively charged ion). The second element in a compounds formula is the anion (negatively charged ion)

42 Who to Replace? Step 1: What is the potential charge on the single element? Step 2: Which element in the compound has the same type of charge? Be + NaCl BeCl 2 + Na

43 Complete the following reaction: Li + NaCl Complete the following reaction: O 2 + NaCl

44 But will it happen? In order for one element to replace another, it must be higher on Table J than

45 Check Your Homework… Any Questions? 5. 2Na + 2HOH H 2 + 2NaOH 6. B + 3KF 3K + BF 3 7. Ba + BaS Ba + BaS 8. Ca + 2HOH H 2 + Ca(OH) 2

46 NOTES Double Replacement 2 substances in a compound switch partners. A compound reacts with a compound. AB + CD AD + CB

47 Trading Double Replacement Reaction

48 Why do double replacement reactions occur? One of the products must form as a gas, a precipitate or as water NOTES

49 Also known as… ionic reaction or solution reaction

50 NaCl + AgNO 3 NaNO 3 + AgCl 2K 3 PO 4 + 3CaS Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 3K 2 S

51 Double Replacement Reactions In a double replacement reaction, two ions switch places in two compounds. NaFLiCl

52 Double Replacement Reactions Once you have identified which two will switch (by looking at the charges), complete the switch and rewrite the formula. NaN+Mg O 3

53 Double Replacement Reactions KF + SrO

54 Practice: NaCl + BeF 2

55 Practice: MgO + KCl

56 Practice: BaBr 2 + K 2 O

57 Polyatomic Ions Polyatomic Ions are multinuclear ions that can be treated as a group of atoms with a charge.

58 KCNSr SO ( )

59 Complete: Ba(NO 3 ) 2 + K 2 C 2 O 4

60 Complete: NaHCO 3 + HCl


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