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Types of Chemical Reactions Synthesis, Combustion, Decomposition and Replacement.

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Presentation on theme: "Types of Chemical Reactions Synthesis, Combustion, Decomposition and Replacement."— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of Chemical Reactions Synthesis, Combustion, Decomposition and Replacement

2 You can think of atoms as people getting together as couples... AnalogyChemical Reaction One personAn ion or element A coupleA compound Switching partnersA replacement reaction

3 The Get Together…

4 Synthesis

5 Decomposition

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7 Single Replacement Reactions

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9 Double Replacement Reaction

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11 Combustion

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13 How does this analogy break down? People in RelationshipsChemical Reactions People can switch partners whenever they want The ions or elements in a compound “switch partners” according to rules We usually just think about one partner and one couple In chemistry, we usually are dealing with billions of particles reacting at once People don’t assume different states of matter In double replacement reactions, there will be a change of state (a solid, liquid, or gas is formed) People aren’t swimming in waterDisplacement reactions generally happen in aqueous solutions

14 Let’s look at the reactions in more detail Synthesis Decomposition Single-Replacement Double-Replacement Combustion

15 What are some types of combustion you are familiar with? Every cell in your body is carrying out combustion

16 Combustion  Oxygen combines with a metal, non-metal, or compound  Creates a metal oxide, non-metal oxide, or 2 or more oxides  Releases energy – heat, light  Can be a slower process too…

17 Synthesis  2 or more reactants combine to make a product ABAB

18 Decomposition  A compound breaks down into two or more substances

19 Single Replacement  A metal replaces a hydrogen  A metal replaces another metal  We use an activity series to predict which metals are “stronger” and can knock out other metals from compounds

20 Activity Series The most active metals are at the top. These will replace metals below them. The halogens are also listed in order of most active at the top to least active at the bottom. More active elements replace less active elements in single replacement reactions

21 Single Replacement Examples  2 AgNO3 + Cu  Cu(NO3)2 + 2 Ag  Fe + Cu(NO3)2  Fe(NO3)2 + Cu  Zn + 2HCL  ZnCl2 + H2

22 Double Replacement Reactions  Produces a precipitate, liquid or gas  All four of the ions switch partners  Aqueous solution

23 Double Replacement Examples  AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq)  AgCl(s) + KNO3(aq)  CaCO3(aq) + 2 HCl(aq)  CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)  HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)  HOH(l) + NaCl(aq)

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25 How to identify a reaction Steps to determine type of reaction Write the chemical equation Determine what is happening in the reaction Use the table to identify the type of reaction Check your answer by comparing the chemical equation to the generic equation Be systematic – it will help you identify the reaction type and the products!

26 How to identify a reaction Example: Identifying a reaction CaO (s) + CO2 (g)  CaCO3 (s) 2 compounds are reacting to form one compound This is a synthesis reaction A + B  AB Example: Solid calcium oxide and carbon dioxide gas react to produce solid calcium carbonate

27 Summary The main types of reactions  Combustion – reaction with oxygen  Synthesis – two compounds or elements getting together  Decomposition – One compound splitting up  Replacement – Another ion moves in Replacement Reactions: 2 types  Single replacement – a stronger cation steps in and replaces a weaker anion  Double replacement – 2 cations switch places, forming a precipitate, a liquid, or a gas

28 You try it!  Work on these examples together in pairs.  Write the reaction  Balance the equation  Classify the reaction  Be prepared to present your results on the board!  Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid form Magnesium Chloride and Hydrogen  Carbon Dioxide and Water form Carbonic Acid (H2CO3)  Silver Nitrate and Sodium Chloride form Silver Chloride and Sodium Nitrate  Heating sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) releases water and carbon dioxide and sodium carbonate

29 You try it!  Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid form Magnesium Chloride and Hydrogen:  Mg + HCl  MgCl + H2 (skeleton equation)  2Mg + 2HCl  2MgCl + H2 (balanced equation)  Single replacement (reaction type)  Carbon Dioxide and Water form Carbonic Acid (H2CO3):  CO2 + H2O  H2CO3 (skeleton equation)  CO2 + H2O  H2CO3 (it’s already balanced!)  Synthesis (reaction type)

30 You try it!  Silver Nitrate and Sodium Chloride form Silver Chloride and Sodium Nitrate  AgNO3 + NaCl  AgCl + NaNO3 (skeleton equation)  AgNO3 + NaCl  AgCl + NaNO3 (already balanced)  Double replacement (reaction type)  Heating sodium bicarbonate releases water and carbon dioxide and sodium carbonate  NaHCO 3  Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O + CO 2 (skeleton equation)  2NaHCO 3  Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O + CO 2 (balanced equation)  Decomposition (reaction type)


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