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Types of Chemical Reactions. Good News! Of all the millions of possible chemical reactions, there are only 5 basic types of reactions.

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Presentation on theme: "Types of Chemical Reactions. Good News! Of all the millions of possible chemical reactions, there are only 5 basic types of reactions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of Chemical Reactions

2 Good News! Of all the millions of possible chemical reactions, there are only 5 basic types of reactions

3 Synthesis Two or more reactants combine to form a product: A + B C C + O 2 CO 2

4 Decomposition The reverse of synthesis: A compound breaks down into two or more simpler substances A B + C CO 2 C + O 2

5 Single Replacement A single element replaces another element in a compound A + BX B + AX Na + AgNO 3 Ag + NaNO 3

6 When will single replacement reactions occur? Use Table J for single replacement reactions The higher the element is on the table, the more reactive it is. A reactive element wants to react, and form a compound. It will bump a less reactive element out of the compound and take its place.

7 Single Replacement In this example, Na is more reactive than Ag, so Na bumps Ag out of the nitrate compound and takes its place. Na + AgNO 3 Ag + NaNO 3

8 Double Replacement Two aqueous ionic compounds (dissolved in water) switch positive ions to produce either a precipitate, a gas, or a molecular compound (like water) AB + CD AD + CB AgNO 3 (aq)+ NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO 3 (aq)

9 Double Replacement Use Table F to determine if a precipitate will form AB + CD AD + CB AgNO 3 (aq)+ NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO 3 (aq)

10 Combustion Hydrocarbon and oxygen yields carbon dioxide and water and heat CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + heat

11 Balancing Equations Mass is always conserved in a chemical reaction

12 N + O NO N + O 2 NO 2

13 H 2 + O 2 H 2 O Is mass conserved in this equation? NO! Reactants: 2 H 2 O Products: 2 H 1 O

14 H 2 + O 2 H 2 O How to Balance an equation Step 1. Place a box around all compounds Step 2. DO NOT make any changes to the compounds inside each box!!!!!!

15 H 2 + O 2 H 2 O Reactants: 2 H 2 O Products: 4 H 2 O How to Balance an equation Step 3. Place coefficients in front of each box to show conservation of mass. Everything inside the box will be multiplied by this number. 2

16 H 2 + O 2 H 2 O Reactants: 4 H 2 O Products: 4 H 2 O How to Balance an equation Step 3. Place coefficients in front of each box to show conservation of mass. Everything inside the box will be multiplied by this number. 2 2

17 H 2 + O 2 H 2 O Reactants: 4 H 2 O Products: 4 H 2 O How to Balance an equation Step 4. Count the types of atoms on both sides of the equation. The atoms on the reactant side must be the same as the atoms on the product side 22 =

18 Helpful Hints for balancing 1)Balance one type of atom at a time 2)Balance atoms that appear only once on each side of the equation first 3)Balance oxygen and hydrogen last 4)It is an iterative process. Be Patient!

19 Balance these…. Fe + O 2 Fe 2 O 3 Mg + HCl H 2 + MgCl 2

20 Unknown reactants or products Since mass is always conserved, this principle can be used to find unknown parts of a chemical reaction Count the atoms on both sides of the equation and determine what atoms are missing from one side……

21 Unknown reactants or products 2 Na + 2H 2 O X + 2NaOH Reactants:Products: 2 Na 4H 2 O 2 Na 2 H 2 O X must be H 2

22 Unknown reactants or products 2 Na + 2H 2 O H 2 + 2NaOH Reactants:Products: 2 Na 4H 2 O 2 Na 2 H 2 O X must be H 2

23 Finding Missing Mass In a similar way to finding missing compounds, missing mass can also be found since mass is always conserved.

24 Given the following balanced equation: 2 KClO 3 2KCl + 3O 2 If 103 g of KClO 3 decomposed to form 62.7 g of KCl, how many grams of oxygen gas are formed?

25 2 KClO 3 2KCl + 3O g = 62.7 g + x 103 g – 62.7 g = x 40.3 g = x


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