Presentation on theme: "CH – 7 Problem Solving (. Learning Goals Learn the general method for resolving problems under water Be introduced to situations that can occur under."— Presentation transcript:
CH – 7 Problem Solving (
Learning Goals Learn the general method for resolving problems under water Be introduced to situations that can occur under water and how you can prevent them from occurring or resolve them if you do encounter them Learn how to assist another diver if they are having a problem Be introduced to the steps you need to take to rescue another diver at the surface and underwater Learn about first aid for aquatic injuries Be introduced to the importance of safe diving practices
General method of resolving a problem 1.Stop your activity 2.Get firm control of yourself and analyze the situation 3.Take action based on your analysis Remembering and following these three steps will help you deal with any situation in a calm manner and can prevent a situation from getting worse.
Heat loss ( Body heat loss through water conduction Body heat lost through breathing If your body loses enough heat, you can develop a medical condition known ashypothermia.
The symptoms of heat loss include: -Loss of muscle strength -Muscle cramps -Numbness in your arms and legs or inability to use your fingers or hands -Increased breathing rate with no increase in your activity -Shivering -Fatigue -Loss of ability to think clearly
If you become cold while diving, you must re- warm yourself. How? End your dive and get out of the water Keep warm You must take shivering as a signal to end your diving activities until you recover. Your best defense in cold water is to wear the right amount of insulation for your needs
Overheating Your bodys first reaction to overheating (hyperthermia) is to perspire. Symptoms of heat exhaustion : 1.Pale, clammy ( skin 2.A feeling of weakness and fatigue 3.Headache 4.Nausea and possibly vomiting To prevent overheating, pace yourself when donning your exposure suit
Cramps If you experience a cramp, stretch the cramped muscle and massage it. For cramps in your calf of foot, pull on the tip of your fin gently as you straighten your leg. This stretches the muscles that are responsible for the cramp. Stretch your muscle gently or you can injure the muscle or tendons.
Entanglements Entanglements typically occur with underwater plants, fishing line, or fish nets.
Disorientation and Vertigo
Sensory deprivation, where you cannot see anything in the water around you, can occur during poor visibility or night diving. Sensory deprivation can cause dizziness or vertigo To overcome dizziness, hold onto a solid object or hug yourself until the dizziness passes. Do not close your eyes.
Equipment difficulties Equipment loss If you become excited and find yourself working hard, stop your activity, recover, think, and start again slowly.
Malfunction of BC and regulators -Occasionally, the power-inflator mechanism on our buoyancy compensator (BC) can stick in the open position, which causes the BC to inflate. If this happens, you must vent the excess air and disconnect the power-inflator hose.
-One way to slow a buoyant ascent is by flaring. To flare your body, get yourself face up and parallel to the surface. Spread you arms and legs out and away from your body and hold the blades of your fins parallel to the surface. -Regulator free-flow
Seasickness If you start to feel nauseous while on the boat, do the following to help prevent seasickness: 1.Avoid eating greasy foods 2.Stay out of the cabin or any enclosed space on the boat 3.Settle your self in a spot midway between the bow and stern and between starboard and port side 4.Look at the horizon.
Choking and coughing You should try to prevent this from occurring by using the following steps: 1.Raise your tongue to the roof of your mouth to form a barrier to keep drops of water from going through your mouth and into your throat. 2.Make your first breath after clearing a snorkel or regulator shallow and cautious. If you must cough, keep the regulator or snorkel in your mouth.
Summary Being able to solve minor problems without stress shows that you are a good, skilled diver. By the time you complete your training, you should feel capable of preventing or handling any problem described here. This feeling of confidence will make you much more relaxed so you can fully enjoy diving.
Assisting other divers As a diver, you have two responsibilities to your buddy. First, you must help to keep problems from occurring. Second, you must help your buddy overcome any problems that do occur. Most diving problems occur at the surface rather than under water. How to help your buddy at the surface? 1.Help your buddy establish buoyancy 2.Get your buddy to relax, breathe deeply, and rest 3.Provide assistance as needed.
Resting and Breathing
Providing Assistance Try to get your buddy to solve their own problem. If this is not possible, or your directions are not followed, you will have to provide direct assistance.
Rescues Divers usually can avoid trouble under water. As a diver, you must know the fundamentals of making a full rescue of an incapacitated diver, even though it is unlikely that you will ever need to apply what you have learned.
At the surface If a diver is apparently unconscious at the surface, use the following steps to perform a rescue: 1.Establish positive buoyancy for yourself. 2.Make contact with the victim to see whether thy are unconscious or able to respond. 3.Pull the victim to a face up position and establish buoyancy for the victim. You can accomplish this by inflating the victims BC or dropping their weight belt 4.Yell and signal for help
5.Remove our mask 6.Remove the victims mask 7.Look, listen, and feel to see if the victim is breathing 8.Start artificial respiration if the victim is not breathing and the shore or boat is more than about 50 meters away 9.Continue rescue breathing as you transport the victim to your exit point.
Underwater If you find an apparently unconscious victim under water, your primary concern is getting them to the surface. 1.Make contact with the victim to see whether they are unconscious 2.Pull the victim to a face-up position and check their mask. If there is any water in the mask and the diver is not breathing, remove the mask to air increasing in volume from decreased pressure will not for water down the victims windpipe.
3.If the diver is breathing, hold their regulator in their mouth while you swim them to the surface 4.If the diver is not breathing, leave the regulator alone 5.You may need to ditch the victims weight belt to make the victim buoyant. This will allow you to swim the victim to the surface without exerting yourself 6.While ascending with the victim, control your ascent to the surface by venting air from the victims BC. 7.If needed, establish buoyancy for the victim when you reach the surface.
In-Water Artificial Respiration 1.Place the victim in the do-si-do transport position 2.Use your outside hand to gently tilt the victims head back and open the airway. 3.Check the victims mouth to be sure no obstruction are present. 4.Check to see if the victim is breathing by using the following method: -Look to see if their chest is rising and falling -Listen to hear air escaping from their nose or mouth -Feel whether air is hitting your cheek and lips when you hold them close to their mouth
5.If the victim is not breathing, pinch their nose, rotate their face toward you, and give them two full breaths 6.Give them another breath every 5 seconds 7.Continue giving the victim one breath every five seconds or 12 breaths per minute.
Emergencies and First Aid To be a qualified dive buddy, you must be able to assist or rescue your buddy, render proper first aid, and manage an emergency. You might be the only person available to offer immediate assistance!!!!!
Be Prepared To prepare yourself to handle emergencies, you need training, emergency equipment, emergency contact information and plans, and the determination to act. The first rule of first aid is to Do no harm.
Basic First Aid 1.Survey the accident scene to determine if its safe to render aid. 2.A quick examination of the victim to determine the seriousness of the injury 3.Immediate treatment for life-threatening emergencies such as cessation (stopping) of breathing or arterial bleeding. 4.Treatment for less serious injuries and shock. 5.. Arrangements for medical care and transport.
There are five major categories of injuries for which you should be prepared to administer first aid: 1.Severe bleeding 2.Respiratory failure 3.Heart failure 4.Shock 5.Serious diving accidents such as lung overexpansion injuries and DCS.
First aid for air embolism and DCS also includes lying the victim down and maintaining their respiration and circulation. You must also treat for shock, administer oxygen if available, constantly monitor the victim, and transport the victim to the nearest appropriate medical facility or operational recompression chamber.
CPR and Oxygen Administration You should have training in first aid and artificial respiration. Everyone, diver or not, should be prepared to administer first aid and especially cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). As a diver, you should also complete raining in oxygen administration through a NAUI instructor.
Aquatic Life Injuries General first aid training does not cover treatment of injuries from aquatic life, although most of the general procedures also apply to this specialty area. General guidelines are presented here. Your instructor will give you specific treatments for injuries from aquatic life in your area.
Prevention Aggressive animal behavior under water is rare. Nearly all animals will attack if they feel cornered or threatened. Remember that when you are diving, you are entering the home of these creatures.
Treatment Injuries from aquatic life are classified in one or more of the following categories: -Punctures ( ) If possible, remove any material in the wound. Toxins might have been injected and must be treated by soaking the wounded area in water as hot as the victim can tolerate for at least 20 min. Get the victim to medical attention ASAP.
-Stings ( ) Jellyfish or coral can cause stings. Remove the stinging materials and apply a neutralizing agent. -Bites and lacerations ( ) -Amputations ( )
Safety in Summary Diving safety is primarily a matter of knowing the rules, following them, and being prepared. Safety occurs when a diver respects the environment and wants to be properly prepared for diving. Divers who are prepared for emergencies and follow the buddy system as well as other good diving practices, safety is simply a byproduct of that attitude.
Responsible Scuba Diving Practices You must be trained for what you plan to do or might have to do in diving, and you must resist the temptation to teach others unless you become certified as a NAUI instructor Only dive when you are feeling well, mentally and physically You must properly maintain your equipment according to the manufacturers recommendations and check it before each dive Know the location where you will dive
Know the rules of the buddy system and abide by them for your own enjoyment and security. Dive regularly, or renew your skills after a period of inactivity before diving again. Safety is an attitude!!