2Learning Goals （學習目標）Learn the general method for resolving problems under waterBe introduced to situations that can occur under water and how you can prevent them from occurring or resolve them if you do encounter themLearn how to assist another diver if they are having a problem （協助潛伴）Be introduced to the steps you need to take to rescue another diver at the surface and underwaterLearn about first aid （急救） for aquatic injuries （傷害）Be introduced to the importance of safe diving practices
3General method of resolving a problem （困難排除的一般法則） Stop your activityGet firm control of yourself and analyze the situationTake action based on your analysisRemembering and following these three steps will help you deal with any situation in a calm manner and can prevent a situation from getting worse.
4Heat loss (失溫） Body heat loss through water conduction Body heat lost through breathingIf your body loses enough heat, you can develop a medical condition known as “hypothermia （體溫過低）.”
5The symptoms （症狀） of heat loss include: Loss of muscle strengthMuscle cramps （抽筋）Numbness （無知覺，麻木） in your arms and legs or inability to use your fingers or handsIncreased breathing rate with no increase in your activityShivering （顫抖）Fatigue （疲勞）Loss of ability to think clearly
6If you become cold while diving, you must re-warm yourself. How? End your dive and get out of the waterKeep warmYou must take shivering as a signal to end your diving activities until you recover.Your best defense in cold water is to wear the right amount of insulation for your needs
7Overheating （過熱）Your body’s first reaction to overheating (hyperthermia) is to perspire （流汗）.Symptoms of heat exhaustion （熱衰竭）:Pale （蒼白）, clammy (黏黏的） skinA feeling of weakness （虛弱） and fatigue （疲勞）Headache （頭痛）Nausea （噁心） and possibly vomiting （嘔吐）To prevent overheating, pace yourself when donning your exposure suit
8Cramps （痙攣）If you experience a cramp, stretch the cramped muscle and massage it. For cramps in your calf of foot, pull on the tip of your fin gently as you straighten your leg. This stretches the muscles that are responsible for the cramp. Stretch your muscle gently or you can injure the muscle or tendons.
12Sensory deprivation, where you cannot see anything in the water around you, can occur during poor visibility or night diving. Sensory deprivation can cause dizziness or vertigoTo overcome dizziness, hold onto a solid object or hug yourself until the dizziness passes. Do not close your eyes.
13Equipment difficulties （裝備故障） Equipment lossIf you become excited and find yourself working hard, stop your activity, recover, think, and start again slowly.
14Malfunction of BC and regulators Occasionally, the power-inflator mechanism on our buoyancy compensator (BC) can stick in the open position, which causes the BC to inflate. If this happens, you must vent the excess air and disconnect the power-inflator hose.
16One way to slow a buoyant ascent is by flaring One way to slow a buoyant ascent is by flaring. To flare your body, get yourself face up and parallel to the surface. Spread you arms and legs out and away from your body and hold the blades of your fins parallel to the surface.Regulator free-flow
17Seasickness （暈船）If you start to feel nauseous while on the boat, do the following to help prevent seasickness:Avoid eating greasy foodsStay out of the cabin or any enclosed space on the boatSettle your self in a spot midway between the bow and stern and between starboard and port sideLook at the horizon.
18Choking and coughing （噎到與咳嗽） You should try to prevent this from occurring by using the following steps:Raise your tongue to the roof of your mouth to form a barrier to keep drops of water from going through your mouth and into your throat.Make your first breath after clearing a snorkel or regulator shallow and cautious.If you must cough, keep the regulator or snorkel in your mouth.
20Summary （結論）Being able to solve minor problems without stress shows that you are a good, skilled diver. By the time you complete your training, you should feel capable of preventing or handling any problem described here. This feeling of confidence will make you much more relaxed so you can fully enjoy diving.
21Assisting other divers （協助其他潛水員） As a diver, you have two responsibilities to your buddy. First, you must help to keep problems from occurring. Second, you must help your buddy overcome any problems that do occur.Most diving problems occur at the surface rather than under water.How to help your buddy at the surface?Help your buddy establish buoyancyGet your buddy to relax, breathe deeply, and restProvide assistance as needed.
25Providing Assistance （提供協助） Try to get your buddy to solve their own problem. If this is not possible, or your directions are not followed, you will have to provide direct assistance.
26Rescues （救援）Divers usually can avoid trouble under water. As a diver, you must know the fundamentals of making a full rescue of an incapacitated diver, even though it is unlikely that you will ever need to apply what you have learned.
27At the surface （水面）If a diver is apparently unconscious at the surface, use the following steps to perform a rescue:Establish positive buoyancy for yourself.Make contact with the victim to see whether thy are unconscious or able to respond.Pull the victim to a face up position and establish buoyancy for the victim. You can accomplish this by inflating the victim’s BC or dropping their weight beltYell and signal for help
28Remove our maskRemove the victim’s maskLook, listen, and feel to see if the victim is breathingStart artificial respiration if the victim is not breathing and the shore or boat is more than about 50 meters awayContinue rescue breathing as you transport the victim to your exit point.
29Underwater （水下）If you find an apparently unconscious victim under water, your primary concern is getting them to the surface.Make contact with the victim to see whether they are unconsciousPull the victim to a face-up position and check their mask. If there is any water in the mask and the diver is not breathing, remove the mask to air increasing in volume from decreased pressure will not for water down the victim’s windpipe.
31If the diver is breathing, hold their regulator in their mouth while you swim them to the surface If the diver is not breathing, leave the regulator aloneYou may need to ditch the victim’s weight belt to make the victim buoyant. This will allow you to swim the victim to the surface without exerting yourselfWhile ascending with the victim, control your ascent to the surface by venting air from the victim’s BC.If needed, establish buoyancy for the victim when you reach the surface.
32In-Water Artificial Respiration （水中人工呼吸） Place the victim in the do-si-do transport positionUse your outside hand to gently tilt the victim’s head back and open the airway.Check the victim’s mouth to be sure no obstruction are present.Check to see if the victim is breathing by using the following method:Look to see if their chest is rising and fallingListen to hear air escaping from their nose or mouthFeel whether air is hitting your cheek and lips when you hold them close to their mouth
33If the victim is not breathing, pinch their nose, rotate their face toward you, and give them two full breathsGive them another breath every 5 secondsContinue giving the victim one breath every five seconds or 12 breaths per minute.
35Emergencies and First Aid （急救） To be a qualified dive buddy, you must be able to assist or rescue your buddy, render proper first aid, and manage an emergency. You might be the only person available to offer immediate assistance!!!!!
36Be PreparedTo prepare yourself to handle emergencies, you need training, emergency equipment, emergency contact information and plans, and the determination to act. The first rule of first aid is to “Do no harm.”
38Basic First Aid （基本的急救） Survey the accident scene to determine if it’s safe to render aid.A quick examination of the victim to determine the seriousness of the injuryImmediate treatment for life-threatening emergencies such as cessation (stopping) of breathing or arterial bleeding.Treatment for less serious injuries and shock.. Arrangements for medical care and transport.
39There are five major categories of injuries for which you should be prepared to administer first aid:Severe bleeding 嚴重失血Respiratory failure 停止呼吸Heart failure 心臟衰竭Shock 休克Serious diving accidents such as lung overexpansion （肺臟破裂） injuries and DCS （減壓病）.
40First aid for air embolism and DCS also includes lying the victim down and maintaining their respiration and circulation. You must also treat for shock, administer oxygen if available, constantly monitor the victim, and transport the victim to the nearest appropriate medical facility or operational recompression chamber.
42CPR and Oxygen Administration You should have training in first aid and artificial respiration. Everyone, diver or not, should be prepared to administer first aid and especially cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). As a diver, you should also complete raining in oxygen administration through a NAUI instructor.
43Aquatic Life Injuries （水中生物造成的傷害） General first aid training does not cover treatment of injuries from aquatic life, although most of the general procedures also apply to this specialty area. General guidelines are presented here. Your instructor will give you specific treatments for injuries from aquatic life in your area.
44Prevention （預防）Aggressive animal behavior under water is rare. Nearly all animals will attack if they feel cornered or threatened. Remember that when you are diving, you are entering the home of these creatures.
45Treatment （處置）Injuries from aquatic life are classified in one or more of the following categories:Punctures (刺傷)If possible, remove any material in the wound. Toxins might have been injected and must be treated by soaking the wounded area in water as hot as the victim can tolerate for at least 20 min.Get the victim to medical attention ASAP.
46Stings (螫傷)Jellyfish or coral can cause stings. Remove the stinging materials and apply a neutralizing agent.Bites and lacerations (斯裂傷)Amputations (截肢)
47Safety in SummaryDiving safety is primarily a matter of knowing the rules, following them, and being prepared.Safety occurs when a diver respects the environment and wants to be properly prepared for diving.Divers who are prepared for emergencies and follow the buddy system as well as other good diving practices, safety is simply a byproduct of that attitude.
48Responsible Scuba Diving Practices You must be trained for what you plan to do or might have to do in diving, and you must resist the temptation to teach others unless you become certified as a NAUI instructorOnly dive when you are feeling well, mentally and physicallyYou must properly maintain your equipment according to the manufacturer’s recommendations and check it before each diveKnow the location where you will dive
49Know the rules of the buddy system and abide by them for your own enjoyment and security. Dive regularly, or renew your skills after a period of inactivity before diving again.Safety is an attitude!!