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**Other Gate Types Why? Gate classifications**

Low cost implementation Useful in implementing Boolean functions Convenient conceptual representation Gate classifications Primitive gate - a gate that can be described using a single primitive operation type (AND or OR) plus optional inversion(s). Complex gate - a gate that requires more than one primitive operation type for its description Primitive gates will be covered first

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NAND Gate The basic NAND gate has the following symbol and truth table: AND-Invert (NAND) Symbol: NAND represents NOT AND. The small “bubble” circle represents the invert function The NAND gate is implemented efficiently in CMOS technology in terms of chip area and speed X Y NAND 1 X Y X · Y

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**NAND Gate: Invert-OR Symbol**

Applying DeMorgan's Law: Invert-OR = NAND This NAND symbol is called Invert-OR Since inputs are inverted and then ORed together AND-Invert & Invert-OR both represent NAND gate Having both makes visualization of circuit function easier Unlike AND, the NAND operation is NOT associative (X NAND Y) NAND Z ≠ X NAND (Y NAND Z) X Y X + Y = X · Y = NAND

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**The NAND Gate is Universal**

NAND gates can implement any Boolean function NAND gates can be used as inverters, or to implement AND / OR operations A NAND gate with one input is an inverter AND is equivalent to NAND with inverted output OR is equivalent to NAND with inverted inputs X Y X · Y ≡ X · Y= X+Y X Y X + Y ≡

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**NOR Gate The basic NOR gate has the following symbol and truth table:**

OR-Invert (NOR) Symbol: NOR represents NOT OR. The small “bubble” circle represents the invert function. The NOR gate is also implemented efficiently in CMOS technology in terms of chip area and speed X Y NOR 1 X Y X + Y

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**NOR Gate: Invert-AND Symbol**

The Invert-AND symbol is also used for NOR This NOR symbol is called Invert-AND, since inputs are inverted and then ANDed together OR-Invert & Invert-AND both represent NOR gate Having both makes visualization of circuit function easier Unlike OR, the NOR operation is NOT associative (X NOR Y) NOR Z ≠ X NOR (Y NOR Z) X Y X · Y = X + Y = NOR

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**The NOR Gate is also Universal**

NOR gates can implement any Boolean function NOR gates can be used as inverters, or to implement AND / OR operations A NOR gate with one input is an inverter OR is equivalent to NOR with inverted output AND is equivalent to NOR with inverted inputs X Y X + Y ≡ X Y X + Y= X · Y X · Y ≡

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**NAND–NAND Implementation**

Consider the Following SOP Expression: A 2-level AND-OR circuit can be converted easily to a NAND-NAND implementation X Z W Y F X Z W Y F Two successive bubbles on the same line cancel each other X Z W Y F

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**NOR–NOR Implementation**

Consider the Following POS Expression: A 2-level OR-AND circuit can be converted easily to a NOR-NOR implementation X Z W Y F X Z W Y F Two successive bubbles on the same line cancel each other X Z W Y F

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**Other Types of 2-Level Circuits**

Other useful types of 2-level circuits: AND-NOR and NAND-AND OR-NAND and NOR-OR AND-NOR Function: Similarly, OR-NAND circuits can be converted to NOR-OR X Y W Z F AND-NOR X Y W Z F NAND-AND X Y W Z F

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**Exclusive OR / Exclusive NOR**

The eXclusive-OR (XOR) function is an important Boolean function used extensively in logic circuits The XOR function may be: Implemented directly as an electronic circuit (true gate) Implemented by interconnecting other gate types (XOR is used as a convenient representation) The eXclusive-NOR (XNOR) function is the complement of the XOR function XOR and XNOR gates are complex gates

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**XOR / XNOR Tables and Symbols**

X Y 1 X Y X Y 1 XOR Symbol XNOR Symbol Because it is defined as X Y + X’ Y’ that equals 1 if and only if X = Y implying X is equivalent to Y. The XNOR is also denoted as equivalence

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**Uses for XOR / XNOR SOP Expressions for XOR/XNOR:**

The XOR function is: The eXclusive NOR (XNOR) function, know also as equivalence is: Uses for the XOR and XNORs gate include: Adders/subtractors/multipliers Counters/incrementers/decrementers Parity generators/checkers Strictly speaking, XOR and XNOR gates do no exist for more that two inputs. Instead, they are replaced by odd and even functions. Y X + = Å Y X + = Å

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**XOR Implementations SOP implementation for XOR: X Y = X Y + X Y**

NAND only implementation for XOR: X Y X Y

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**XOR / XNOR Identities XOR and XNOR are associative operations X = Å 1**

Å = X 1 Å X = Å 1 X = Å X Y Å = Y = X Y X Y Å = ) = X Y Z Z Y ( X ) Å = ) = X Y Z Z Y ( X ) Å = XOR and XNOR are associative operations

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**Odd Function + = Å Z Y X X Y Z W X Y Z**

The XOR function can be extended to 3 or more variables For 3 or more variables, XOR is called an odd function The function is 1 if the total number of 1’s in the inputs is odd + = Å Z Y X 1 YZ X 00 01 11 10 WX X Y Z W X Y Z

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Odd and Even Functions The 1s of an odd function correspond to inputs with an odd number of 1s The complement of an odd function is called an even function The 1s of an even function correspond to inputs with an even number of 1s Implementation of odd and even functions use trees made up of 2-input XOR or XNOR gates

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**Odd/Even Function Implementation**

Design a 3-input odd function with 2-input XOR: 3-input odd function: F = (X Y) Z Design a 4-input even function with 2-input XOR and XNOR gates: 4-input even function: F = (W X) (Y Z) X Y Z F W X Y F Z

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**Parity Generators and Checkers**

A parity bit added to n-bit code produces (n+1)-bit code with an odd (or even) count of 1s Odd Parity bit: count of 1s in (n+1)-bit code is odd So use an even function to generate the odd parity bit Even Parity bit: count of 1s in (n+1)-bit code is even So use an odd function to generate the even parity bit To check for odd parity Use an even function to check the (n+1)-bit code To check for even parity Use an odd function to check the (n+1)-bit code

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**Parity Generator & Checkers**

Sender Receiver n-bit code Parity Generator (n+1)-bit code Checker Error Design an even parity generator and checker for 3-bit codes Solution: Use 3-bit odd function to generate even parity bit Use 4-bit odd function to check for errors in even parity codes Operation: (X,Y,Z) = (0,0,1) gives (X,Y,Z,P) = (0,0,1,1) and E = 0 If Y changes from 0 to 1 between generator and checker, then E = 1 indicates an error X Y Z P X Y Z E P

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**Buffer A buffer is a gate with the function F = X**

In terms of Boolean function, a buffer is the same as a connection! So why use it? A buffer is used to amplify an input signal Permits more gates to be attached to output Also, increases the speed of circuit operation X F 1 X F

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**Hi-Impedance Output Logic gates introduced thus far …**

Have 1 and 0 output values Cannot have their outputs connected together Three-state logic adds a third logic value: Hi-Impedance output: Hi-Z What is Hi-Impedance output? The output appears to be disconnected from the input Behaves as an open circuit between gate input & output Hi-Z state makes a gate output behave differently: Three output values: 1, 0, and Hi-Z Hi-impedance gates can connect their outputs together

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**The 3-State Buffer Symbol Truth Table IN = data input**

EN = Enable control input OUT = data output If EN = 0 then OUT = HI-Z Regardless of the value on IN Output disconnected from input If EN = 1, then OUT =IN Output follows the input value Variations: EN can be inverted OUT can be inverted By addition of bubbles to signals Symbol IN EN OUT Truth Table EN IN OUT X Hi-Z 1

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**Wired Output: Resolving Output Value**

The output of 3-state buffers can be wired together At most one 3-state buffer can be enabled. Resolved output is equal to the output of the enabled 3-state buffer If multiple 3-state buffers are enabled at the same time then conflicting outputs will burn the circuit IN0 EN0 OUT IN1 EN1 IN2 EN2 O0 O1 O2 Resolution Table O0 O1 O2 OUT 0 or 1 Hi-Z Burn

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**Data Selection Circuit**

Performing data selection with 3-state buffers: If S = 0 then OUT = IN0 else OUT = IN1 The outputs of the 3-state buffers are wired together Since EN0 = S and EN1 = S, one of the two buffer outputs is always Hi-Z IN0 EN0 S OUT IN1 EN1 S EN0 EN1 IN0 IN1 OUT 1 X

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**Implementing a XOR Gate**

We can use 3-state buffers to implement a XOR gate as shown B = 0 will enable the 3-state buffer with output X (F = X = A) B = 1 will enable the 3-state buffer with output Y (F = Y = A) Therefore, F = A B A F = AB B X Y Truth Table A B X Y F Hi-Z 1

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