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**Lecture 6 More Logic Functions: NAND, NOR, XOR and XNOR**

Give qualifications of instructors: DAP teaching computer architecture at Berkeley since 1977 Co-athor of textbook used in class Best known for being one of pioneers of RISC currently author of article on future of microprocessors in SciAm Sept 1995 RY took 152 as student, TAed 152,instructor in 152 undergrad and grad work at Berkeley joined NextGen to design fact 80x86 microprocessors one of architects of UltraSPARC fastest SPARC mper shipping this Fall

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**More 2-input logic gates (NAND, NOR, XOR) Extensions to 3-input gates **

Overview More 2-input logic gates (NAND, NOR, XOR) Extensions to 3-input gates Converting between sum-of-products and NANDs SOP to NANDs NANDs to SOP Converting between sum-of-products and NORs SOP to NORs NORs to SOP Positive and negative logic We use primarily positive logic in this course. credential: bring a computer die photo wafer : This can be an hidden slide. I just want to use this to do my own planning. I have rearranged Culler’s lecture slides slightly and add more slides. This covers everything he covers in his first lecture (and more) but may We will save the fun part, “ Levels of Organization,” at the end (so student can stay awake): I will show the internal stricture of the SS10/20. Notes to Patterson: You may want to edit the slides in your section or add extra slides to taylor your needs.

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**Logic functions of N variables**

Each truth table represents one possible function (e.g. AND, OR) If there are N inputs, there are 22N For example, is N is 2 then there are 16 possible truth tables. So far, we have defined 2 of these functions 14 more are possible. Why consider new functions? Cheaper hardware, more flexibility. x 1 y G

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**Logic functions of 2 variables**

Truth table - Wikipedia,

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**NAND gates have several interesting properties…**

The NAND Gate A Y B This is a NAND gate. It is a combination of an AND gate followed by an inverter. Its truth table shows this… NAND gates have several interesting properties… NAND(a,a)=(aa)’ = a’ = NOT(a) NAND’(a,b)=(ab)’’ = ab = AND(a,b) NAND(a’,b’)=(a’b’)’ = a+b = OR(a,b) A B Y 1

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The NAND Gate These three properties show that a NAND gate with both of its inputs driven by the same signal is equivalent to a NOT gate A NAND gate whose output is complemented is equivalent to an AND gate, and a NAND gate with complemented inputs acts as an OR gate. Therefore, we can use a NAND gate to implement all three of the elementary operators (AND,OR,NOT). Therefore, ANY switching function can be constructed using only NAND gates. Such a gate is said to be primitive or functionally complete.

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**NAND Gates into Other Gates**

(what are these circuits?) A Y Y A B NOT Gate AND Gate A B Y OR Gate

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Cascaded NAND Gates 3-input NAND gate

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NAND Gate and Laws

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**NOR gates also have several interesting properties…**

The NOR Gate A Y B This is a NOR gate. It is a combination of an OR gate followed by an inverter. It’s truth table shows this… NOR gates also have several interesting properties… NOR(a,a)=(a+a)’ = a’ = NOT(a) NOR’(a,b)=(a+b)’’ = a+b = OR(a,b) NOR(a’,b’)=(a’+b’)’ = ab = AND(a,b) A B Y 1

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**Functionally Complete Gates**

Just like the NAND gate, the NOR gate is functionally complete…any logic function can be implemented using just NOR gates. Both NAND and NOR gates are very valuable as any design can be realized using either one. It is easier to build an IC chip using all NAND or NOR gates than to combine AND,OR, and NOT gates. NAND/NOR gates are typically faster at switching and cheaper to produce.

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**NOR Gates into Other Gates**

(what are these circuits?) A Y NOT Gate Y A B OR Gate A B Y AND Gate

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NOR Gate and Laws

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**The XOR Gate (Exclusive-OR)**

Y B This is a XOR gate. XOR gates assert their output when exactly one of the inputs is asserted, hence the name. The switching algebra symbol for this operation is , i.e. 1 1 = 0 and 1 0 = 1. Output is high when either A or B is high but not the both A B Y 1

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**simply the complement of the XOR gate. The switching algebra symbol **

The XNOR Gate A Y B This is a XNOR gate. This functions as an exclusive-NOR gate, or simply the complement of the XOR gate. The switching algebra symbol for this operation is , i.e. 1 1 = 1 and 1 0 = 0. A B Y 1

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**XOR Implementation by NAND**

NAND Implementation XOR Expression

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**XNOR Implementation by NAND**

NOT gate acting as bubble Bubbles cancels each others out

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NOR Gate Equivalence NOR Symbol, Equivalent Circuit, Truth Table

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**(a + b)’ = a’b’ (ab)’ = a’ + b’**

DeMorgan’s Theorem A key theorem in simplifying Boolean algebra expression is DeMorgan’s Theorem. It states: (a + b)’ = a’b’ (ab)’ = a’ + b’ Complement the expression a(b + z(x + a’)) and simplify. (a(b+z(x + a’)))’ = a’ + (b + z(x + a’))’ = a’ + b’(z(x + a’))’ = a’ + b’(z’ + (x + a’)’) = a’ + b’(z’ + x’a’’) = a’ + b’(z’ + x’a)

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Example Determine the output expression for the below circuit and simplify it using DeMorgan’s Theorem

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**Combinational Logic Using Universal Gates**

X = ( (AB)’(CD)’ )’ = ( (A’ + B’) (C’ + D’) )’ = (A’ + B’)’ + (C’ + D’)’ = A’’ B’’ + C’’ D’’ = AB + CD

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**Universality of NAND and NOR gates**

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**Universality of NOR gate**

Equivalent representations of the AND, OR, and NOT gates

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Example

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**Interpretation of the two NAND gate symbols**

Determine the output expression for circuit via DeMorgan’s Theorem

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**Interpretation of the two OR gate symbols**

Determine the output expression for circuit via DeMorgan’s Theorem

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**Alternate Logic-Gate Representations**

Standard and alternate symbols for various logic gates and inverter. Invert each input and output of the standard symbol, This is done by adding bubbles(small circles) on input and output lines that do not have bubbles and by removing bubbles that are already there. Change the operation symbol from AND to OR, or from OR to AND.(In the special case of the INVERTER, the operation symbol is not changed)

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**Positive Logic and Negative Logic**

We will be emphasizing primarily on positive logic in this course

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**Axioms and Graphical representation of DeMorgan's Law**

Commutative Law Associative Law Distributive Law Consensus Theorem

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NOR Gate and Laws

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NAND Gate and Laws

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**Basic logic functions can be made from NAND, and NOR functions **

Summary Basic logic functions can be made from NAND, and NOR functions The behavior of digital circuits can be represented with waveforms, truth tables, or symbols Primitive gates can be combined to form larger circuits Boolean algebra defines how binary variables with NAND, NOR can be combined DeMorgan’s rules are important. Allow conversion to NAND/NOR representations credential: bring a computer die photo wafer : This can be an hidden slide. I just want to use this to do my own planning. I have rearranged Culler’s lecture slides slightly and add more slides. This covers everything he covers in his first lecture (and more) but may We will save the fun part, “ Levels of Organization,” at the end (so student can stay awake): I will show the internal stricture of the SS10/20. Notes to Patterson: You may want to edit the slides in your section or add extra slides to taylor your needs.

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