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Energy Heat from Biomass- State of Art and Best Practice Examples www.renewables-made-in-germany.de Christian Letalik (Engineer of Agriculture) C.A.R.M.E.N.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy Heat from Biomass- State of Art and Best Practice Examples www.renewables-made-in-germany.de Christian Letalik (Engineer of Agriculture) C.A.R.M.E.N."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy Heat from Biomass- State of Art and Best Practice Examples Christian Letalik (Engineer of Agriculture) C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V.

2 Content Overview C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V. Importance of Biomass in Comparison to other Renewable Energy Sources Heat from Biomass - Sources / Markets / Prices - Best Practise Examples Conclusions

3 C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V. Central Agricultural Raw materials Marketing and Development Network, registered association Coordination office for renewable resources in Bavaria Founded in1992, 70 members, 20 employees Consulting, public relations and project management with regard to energetically use of biomass Project assessment and project evaluation for the Bavarian Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Further information: Bavaria

4 C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V. Sponsored BioEnergy-Projects Approx. 350 heat plants 500 kW th. to 13 MW th. 13 wood-Combined Heat and Power Plants 40 kW el. to 10 MW el. 6 vegetable oil - CHPs 5 kW el. to 200 kW el. 6 Biogas - CHPs 15 kW el. to 250 kW el. 3 drying plants for animal food Heat Plants CHP Drying Plants Veg. Oil CHP X Biogas Plant

5 Content Overview C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V. Importance of Biomass in Comparison to other Renewable Energy Sources Heat from Biomass - Sources / Markets / Economics / Prices - Best Practise Conclusions

6 Energy crops, slurry organic waste rape, sunflower wood, forest residues, wood pellets gaseous flüssig Solid Biomass Mobility Heat and electricity liquid Physical States of Biomass Electricity and heat

7 Importance of Renewable Energy Sources – FRG in 2010 Source: Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety

8 Importance of Biomass – Final Energy Consumption Source: Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety

9 Development of Biomass – Electricity Generation Source: Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety

10 Development of Biomass – Heat Supply Source: Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety

11 Importance of Renewable Energy Sources – Heat Supply Source: Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 58 bn. kWh from split logs (fire wood) in private households (= 2 / 3 of solid biomass) = 20 Mio. tons/a ! Source: HDG Bavaria

12 Content Overview C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V. Importance of Biomass in Comparison to other Renewable Energy Sources Heat from Biomass - Sources / Markets / Prices - Best Practise Examples Conclusions

13 Shares of Residue Biomass Potentials in Germany Source: Knappe et al ,8% organic waste from households Slurry 15,9% 13,1% forest residues 24,5% cereal straw 11,6% rape straw, beet and potato leaf 4,6% residues from the forest industry 9,8% waste- paper 7,7% used wood

14 Different Sources and Forms of Solid Biofuels Traditional In Future? Wood-pellets Wood-chips Split logs (fire wood) StrawGrains Miscanthus Wood-Plantation

15 Wood Pellets; Number of installed Pellet Boilers < 100kW Wood Pellets Characteristics : Diameter : 6 or 8 mm Length :10 to 40 mm Cal. value : 5 kWh / kg Density :650 kg/m 3 Ash content :< 0,5 %

16 Use of Solid Biomass – Wood Pellets Source: viel-energie.de Fully automatic central heating system with wood pellets

17 Pellet Market Development of Pellet Production in Germany Pellet Production Plants Source: DEPV

18 Distribution of Biomass Heat and CHP Plants Bavaria Germany: Distribution of small solid biomass boilers: Source: MAP Evaluation 2007/2008 Heat Plants CHP Plants

19 Development of Prices for different Fuels

20 Biomass Heat Plant - System heat exchanger Biomass- Boiler Waste gas- preperation Pump Heating plant Heating Water- boiler Accepter supply network PrimarySecundary

21 Biomass Heat Plant - System Biomass plant with wood chip bunker Different heat sinks with different annual curve and peak load

22 hours per year Biomass Heat Plant - System Peak load ground load

23 hours per year Biomass Heat Plant - System

24 Biomass Heat Plant – Economics Recommendations (medium + large scale 0,5-5MW) at least h full load for the biomass boiler more than 80 % heat production from biomass total invest < 7,5 * the current receipts for heat p.a. minimal proportion of heat demand to pipe length: 1,5 MWh/(m*a) example: 1 km of heat pipe should transport at least MWh of heat to the clients;

25 Structure of Costs for a Biomass Heat Plant Capital Investment (amount of annuity) Investment for building (heating house, bunker, chimney) and heat pipe wood chip fired boiler; fossil boiler for peak demand hydraulic systems, control technology pumps, compressor and other components installation and commissioning technical planning and design, building permission Consumption bound Costs wood chips, heating gas oil, natural gas; electricity waste management Operating and other Costs manpower costs for maintenance and repair, cleaning management, insurances, measurement of fume

26 Structure of Costs for a Biomass Heat Plant Structure of costs Fuel costs for biomass: ~ 35 % Fuel costs for mineral oil: ~ 10 % Costs for electricity: ~ % Capital costs: ~ 40 % Operating costs: ~ 10% Costs for waste disposal (wood ash): ~ %

27 Content Overview C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V. Importance of Biomass in Comparison to other Renewable Energy Sources Solid Biomass - Sources / Markets / Economics /Prices - Best Practise Conclusions

28 Biomass Heat Plant in Altdorf near Nuremberg Characteristics: Heat demand: MWh Wood Boiler : 850 kW th. Wood chips per year: tons Replace liters of fuel oil Clients: school buildings, gyms public swimming pool intended bunker wood chip boiler

29 Number of Biomass CHP Plants Number of Biomass Combined Heat and Power Plants is increasing continuously Source: EEG Monitoring Report 40 plants < 0,5 MW el. 100 plants 0,5 – 5 MW el. 70 plants > 5 MW el. 210 plants with > MW el.

30 Organic Rankine Cycle in Sauerlach near Munich ORC Cogeneration Plant Sauerlach heat and power generation - electric output 480 kW(el.) - two wood chip-fired boilers with 6 MW th. (4 MW th. ORC+ 2 MW th. ), economizer Ø 0,7 MW th. - heating-/plant-oil boiler (peak load) 4 MW th. - second (peak load) heating-oil boiler 5 MW th. - electricity : ~2.500 MWh/a; heat: ~ MWh/a - fuel need amount: tons per year ~ 80% of heat production from biomass planned in 2011: connection to geothermal plant with 4MW th.

31 Organic Rankine Cycle in Sauerlach near Munich ORC Cogeneration plant Sauerlach utilisation of heat: 460 customers (from 12 kW up to 1 MW th. ) in industrial area, housing estates, and communal buildings; (peak) load of the heat consumers 15,6 MW; pipeline length 23 km investment costs until now > ,- incl ,- state grants first idea in 1996, sightseeing in Austria in 1997 calculation, heat pricing and working out contracts in 1998/99 Customer acquisition and partial finance solution in 2000 detailed planning, apply for sponsoring and contracts in 2001 First groundbreaking in 2/2002; first heat supply in 9/2002 !!

32 Best Practice – Big Biomass CHP Plant Combined heat and power plant Pfaffenhofen 26,7 MW FWL heat input MWh el. electric power generation MWh th. (low pressure steam and heat from 45° up to 130°C for foodstuffs industry, brewery, hospital, offices, 150 clients...) tons of natural biomass (up to m 3 per day) Length of heatpipe: more than 12 km, Invest 41 Mio.

33 Production Of Wood Chips Source: IPF, Univ. of Karlsruhe TH Source: From forestry residues in the Forest Smaller entire trees or Smaller parts (treetops) of larger trees

34 Solid fuels Production from Industrial Wood Residues Source: Ass. of timber industry in Baden Württemberg, Germany Sawdust Crooked boles Strands

35 Solid Fuels Production from Wooden Garden Waste Rotating screen machine in a composting plant Waste material from nature conservation

36 Source: Komptech Professional preparation in one step with low speed shredder and star screen Solid fuels Production from wooden garden waste

37 Heat from Biomass – Biogas Plant Schematic View on a Biogas Plant Source: Biogas - an Introduction; FNR

38 Number of Biogas Plants in Germany Source: German Biogas Association Number of German Biogas Plants Cumulative installed electrical capacity

39 Renewable Energy Source Act Payment for Electricity from Biogas in Germany Source: Biogas - an Introduction; FNR

40 Biogas Plant, Irlbach feeder, 2 digestors (2 * 1850 m³) 1 storage (4000 m³) CHP (530 kWe) + transformer heat is used in a castle and for drying wood chips substrates: -farm slurry (sometimes) -distiller's wash (sometimes) -maize silage (20 tons/d) -grass silage (5 tons/d) -wheat (only corn) (1 ton /d ) -wheat (whole crop) (4 tons/d)

41 Number of Biomethane Plants in Germany Regional distribution of realized and projected biomethane plants in Germany; about 50 plants in 2010 (Source:

42 Final Arguments for Heat from Biomass regional added value and conservation of rural structures/employment less environmental damage in case of accident saving of fossil resources (we are running out of supplies) reduction of emissions CO 2 technically mature short transport distances (versus oil and natural gas) reduced dependence on the fossil fuel market new market for otherwise unused fuels new operation field for companies

43 Content Overview C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V. Importance of Biomass in Comparison to other Renewable Energy Sources Solid Biomass - Sources / Markets / Economics / Prices - Best Practise Conclusions

44 Possible Conclusions I General Conditions in Ireland: Very few forest areas - in average up to 10% of total area - Promotion program for reafforestation from the EU; Timber harvest: 2008: 3,5 mio. m 3 per year. Aim: 10 mio. m 3 in 2030 Infrastructure (road network) is not yet fully developed, which is relevant for harvest and transportation costs; Timber Industry is developing and growing Economic Circumstances Prices for natural gas ? Prices for heating gas oil ? Debate on peat

45 Possible Conclusions II Biomass heat plants: In regions without natural gas main and high demand for heat e. g.: hospitals, homes for the aged, public swimming pools, school buildings, gymnasiums, playschools, offices, town halls, monasteries, hotels and restaurants etc. the development of biomass heat plants should be proved ! CHP, Combined heat and power plants depending on prices for electricity from Renewable Sources (EEG?) should not be projected without heat sink or demand for steam in the surrounding (max. 10 km) area of the plant, for example: any kind of food industries (brewery, creamery, slaughterhouse, cannery etc.), drying plants for animal food, sludge and plants for pellet production, timber industries

46 Possible Conclusions III Most important aim: The substitution of oil, natural gas and peat with local wood residues such as sawdust, wood chips from treetops etc. and bark originating from the forestry and timber industries by developing biomass heat and CHP plants in the near of heat sinks Development of biogas plants near to heat sinks Plants fed on available agricultural raw materials and residues such as slurry, straw and biowaste. leading to economic and environmental benefits for the population of Ireland.

47 ÖNorm M 7133 Wood chip drying by heat from biogas – BEST PRACTICE!

48 Heat from Biomass Christian Letalik (Engineer of Agriculture) C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V. Thank you for your attention !


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