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Chuck Kutscher National Renewable Energy Laboratory Biomass Power Potential Energy and Climate Mini-Workshop November 3, 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Chuck Kutscher National Renewable Energy Laboratory Biomass Power Potential Energy and Climate Mini-Workshop November 3, 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chuck Kutscher National Renewable Energy Laboratory Biomass Power Potential Energy and Climate Mini-Workshop November 3, 2008

2 Wood chips Switch grass Poplars Municipal solid waste Corn Stover Biomass Feedstocks

3 U.S. Biomass Resources

4 Potential Dry Biomass Supply Estimates (2025)

5 U.S. Biomass Resource Assessment Updated resource assessment - April 2005 Jointly developed by U.S. DOE and USDA Referred to as the Billion Ton Study

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7 Biomass Cost Components Planting and management Harvesting and collection Transportation Total cost is $20 - $60/ton

8 Biopower Biopower status World: 40 GW U.S capacity: 10.5 GWe (all direct combustion) –5 GW Pulp and Paper –2 GW Dedicated Biomass –3 GW MSW and Landfill Gas –0.5 GW Cofiring 2004 Generation – 68.5 TWh Cost – 8-10¢/kWh DOE Potential Cost – 4-6¢/kWh (integrated gasification combined cycle) 2030 – 160 TWh (net electricity exported to grid from integrated 60 billion gal/yr biorefinery industry)

9 Options for Biomass Electricity Direct combustion Co-firing Gasification

10 Combustion 50 MW McNeil Power Station Burlington, Vermont 74 MW Wheelabrator Shasta Plant Anderson, California

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12 Gasification Systems Under Development 300 ton/day gasifier Burlington Electric, VT Varnamo Sweden, 100 mt/day, 6 MWe + 9 MWth demo run for 5 years, being retrofitted for BTL Commercial Biomass-to-Liquids Plant, Choren Industries, Freiberg Germany, 2008: 200 mt/d biomass, 2010: 2,000 mt/d biomass Foster Wheeler CFB Gasifier, Lahti Finland, 300 mt/d; 30,000 hours of operation at >95% availability

13 Small and medium size CHP is a good opportunity for biomass Credit: Community Power Corp Credit: Carbona Corp kWe 5 MWe + District Heat Skive, Denmark

14 Biomass Power Benefits Reliable base load power Shifts agricultural and municipal biomass emissions from methane to CO 2 Resource is well dispersed, so plants can be located to minimize new transmission Using woody biomass for electricity production has lower emissions than open burning Addresses waste and fire management problems Reduces new landfill capacity

15 Biomass Power Characteristics Direct combustion boiler/steam turbine Average size 20 MW, largest 75 MW; fuel transportation cost usually limits to 50 MW; gas/combined cycle might be 100 MW 20% efficiency for direct combustion, 40% IGCC 8-12 cents per kWh Barriers are producing, transporting, and preparing feedstock Supplies dominated by low-cost residue streams 50-mile economic supply radius, 20 miles preferred

16 CO 2 LCA Results for One Hectare

17 Biomass Carbon Savings 1 Bain, et al Woods, et al. 2007

18 Greenhouse Gas Burden from Removal of 1 Million Dry Tons of Forest Biomass in California in 2000 Morris, Biomass Energy Production in California, NREL/SR , November 2000

19 (based on $33/ton CO2)

20 ASES Study Assumptions Based on WGA study of 18 western states, 170 million dry tons of biomass Required cost of < 8¢/kWh Most cost-effective units: –<15 MW: steam turbine or gasifier/ICE –>15 MW: IGCC Units larger than 60 MW connected to high-voltage distribution Extrapolated WGA results to DOE 1.25 billion ton study, excluding energy crops and crop residues (used for biofuels)

21 ASES Study Biomass Power Savings 2030 Savings: 75 MtC/yr Wood residues and municipal discards 45,000 MW (after biofuels use) 5 to 8¢/kWh

22 WGA Biomass Supply Curve

23 Biomass used (Millions dry tons) Power (GW)Low Carbon (MtC/y) High Carbon (MtC/y) 334 (forest only) (all forest and non-crop ag biomass, ASES) less 420 of crop residues and energy crops used for ASES biofuels Biomass Power and Carbon Displacement Potentials

24 Carbon Capture and Storage

25 Impact of Carbon Price on Cost of Biomass CCS Rhodes, J. and D. Keith, Engineering Economic Analysis of Biomass IGCC with Carbon Capture and Storage, Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 29, 2005


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