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Chapter Four Nutrition II. Objectives Understand the guidelines for food labeling and how they describe the nutritional values of food Identify problems.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Four Nutrition II. Objectives Understand the guidelines for food labeling and how they describe the nutritional values of food Identify problems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Four Nutrition II

2 Objectives Understand the guidelines for food labeling and how they describe the nutritional values of food Identify problems associated with fast food dining Understand the issues related to supplement use Define the 4 styles of vegetarianism

3 Objectives cont… Explain the guidelines for a successful weight-loss program Define eating disorders and understand their risk factors, underlying issues, problems associated with each, and what can be done to help

4 Vegetarianism Are vegetarians able to meet their nutritional needs through their daily food intake? 4 types of diets: Vegans: no animal products are consumed Lactovegetarians: eats dairy products, but do not consume any other animal products Ovolactovegetarians: eats eggs and dairy products, but do not consume any other animal products Semivegetarian: eats a small selection of poultry, fish, and other seafood in addition to eggs and dairy products

5 Reading Labels Ingredients are listed by % of total weight, in order from highest to lowest Law requires the following on a label: # of servings per container # of calories per serving % of total fat (including saturated fat), cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates (including fiber & sugars), protein, vitamin, and minerals

6 Reading Labels cont… Daily Value Based on 2,000 to 2,500 calorie/day If you eat more or less, your personal daily value will change For total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals, your daily value goal is to reach 100% Choose foods with a low % daily value for fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium

7 Key Words & Health Claims on Product Labels Key words on product labels Fat free Low fat Lean Light Health claims about: Heart disease & Fats Blood pressure & Sodium Heart disease and fruits, vegetables, and grain products

8 Healthy Food Shopping Read labels while shopping Serving sizes # of servings per container Compare the total # of calories in similar products Shop for quick, low fat food items and lower calorie staples

9 Fast Food / Eating Out Quick service & low prices High in fat and calories Low in many essential nutrients and dietary fiber Is it possible to make healthy choices at fast food restaurants??? Look at the nutritional info at restaurants Broiled, baked, roasted vs. Fried Look at the portion size

10 Dietary Supplements Is it necessary to take a dietary supplement??? The best and most preferred method is to eat a healthy diet Dietary supplements are often less effective in delivering these nutrients to your body More does not mean better

11 Dietary Supplements cont… Taken in concentrations higher than the RDA, may result in the following: undesirable side effects toxicity interfere with the absorption of other vital nutrients Certain conditions and lifestyles may require supplementation (anemia, pregnancy, & vegetarianism)

12 Weight Loss Products Appetite Suppressants Metabolism Boosters Programs

13 Appetite Suppressants Description: Suppresses the appetite by increasing a feeling of fullness, resulting in a reduction of food intake Cautions : deficiencies of important nutrients Example: dexatrim

14 Metabolism Boosters Description: Increases your basal metabolic rate Increases the building of lean muscle mass & decreases the production of fat They are intended to be used with a sound exercise program Caution: long term effects are not known Examples: creatine phosphate & metabolite

15 Programs Design: Utilizes a reduced-calorie diet Some are pre-packed foods Others replace meals with shakes Many have maintenance plans once you have reached your weight loss goal Cautions: yo-yo dieting, BMR drops Examples: Slim Fast & Jenny Craig

16 Problems Associated with Fad Diets Programs are based on unsound information, and may have no basis in scientific fact Severe caloric restriction Nutritional deficits yo-yo effect Weight loss is water & muscle, not fat Does not teach healthy behavior modification and a healthy lifestyle

17 Red Flags when Considering a Weight Loss Plan Claims that no exercise or calorie reduction is necessary Costly Emphasizes a particular food Extreme results over little time Does not include behavior modification

18 Harmful Aspects of Dieting Considered severe caloric restriction when ingesting less than 800 calories/day 50% of the weight loss is muscle loss Heart muscle can be affected Problems with blood pressure dropping Dizziness, lightheaded, and fatigue Problems with nausea and abdominal pain

19 Body Composition 1 of the 5 components of health related fitness % of body fat in relationship to an individuals lean body mass Better indicator of overall health and fitness than a persons actual body weight Current ideal standards Males: 7-15% Females: 18-23%

20 Weight Management Proper nutrition Choose a healthy assortment of food that are low in fats and sugars (vegetables, fruits, whole grains, skim milk, fish, lean cuts of meat, and beans) Choose sensible portion sizes Check product labels for calories, number of servings, & fat grams Regular physical activity

21 What is a Healthy Body Weight? Best indicator is body composition Body Mass Index Based on the notion that weight is proportional to height

22 Ideal Weight vs. Natural Weight Ideal weight is often unrealistic Natural weight is achieved when a person eats healthy portions of a variety of foods

23 Determining Caloric Needs Caloric needs are different for every individual Method #1 Target body weight Females: (inches over 5ft X 5lbs) Males: (inches over 5ft X 6lbs) Target weight X 10 = Calories for weight Calories for weight + Activity level = Daily Calorie Allowance Method #2 Multiply your body weight by the activity factor that applies to you

24 Caloric Needs cont… Visit the Nutrition Analysis Tool to determine your caloric needsNutrition Analysis Tool

25 Guidelines for a Successful Weight Loss Program Mild caloric restriction Dynamic aerobic exercise Realistic weight loss: 2 lbs/week Learn healthy behavior modification Lifetime commitment to healthy eating and regular exercise, one you can follow for a lifetime, anywhere at anytime Portion sizes, maintain nutritionally sound meals

26 Eating Disorders Eating disorders are potentially life threatening, mental health conditions related to obsessive eating patterns Types of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Fear of Obesity Activity Nervosa

27 Eating Disorders – Underlying Issues A distorted body image Always striving for perfection A need to be in control Low self-esteem Depression There is a conflict between a desire for perfection and feelings of personal inadequacy

28 Causes of Eating Disorders Causes are numerous and complex Psychological factors Chemical imbalances Emotional disorders Family pressure Culture Society Media

29 Whos at Risk? More women than men, but it is believed to be underreported in men Individuals living in economically developed nations College campuses Upper middle class women Certain female sports Certain male sports

30 Anorexia Nervosa A state of starvation resulting from severe dieting and excessive exercise Symptoms: Major weight loss Loss of menstrual periods Dry skin Excessive hair on the skin Thinning of scalp hair Gastrointesinal problems Orthopedic problems

31 Anorexia Nervosa cont… Complications: Damaged bones, organs, muscles, immune system, digestive system, nervous system Suicide Heart disease Possible sterility Nerve damage Possible seizures Anemia GI problems

32 Bulimia Nervosa State of bingeing and purging Symptoms: Secretive behavior Preoccupation with food Frequent weight fluctuations due to alternating binges & fasts Cuts and calluses on the finger joints Broken blood vessels around their eyes Damaged tooth enamel

33 Bulimia Nervosa cont… Complications: Tooth erosion, cavities, and gum problems Abdominal bloating Possible sterility Dehydration Low potassium levels Heart damage

34 Fear of Obesity & Activity Nervosa Fear of Obesity Over concern with thinness precursor to anorexia or bulimia Activity Nervosa Compulsion to exercise, regardless of illness or injury

35 Helping Someone with an Eating Disorder How can I help? Dont ignore the problem Learn more about the problem Be supportive, not accusatory Be patient Offer help

36 Helping Someone with an Eating Disorder cont… Medical Treatment: Necessary Resistance and denial on behalf of the patient Need support from friends and family Interdiscplinary approach : Counseling (family therapy, support groups) nutritional therapy drug therapy hospital stays

37 Summary Fast food choices are often high in fat and calories, and low in many essential nutrients and dietary fiber Dietary supplements are often less effective in delivering nutrients to your body Fad diets are often based on unsound information, and may have no basis in scientific fact Guidelines for a successful weight loss program include healthy behavior modification and lifetime commitment to healthy eating and regular exercise

38 Summary cont… Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa are potentially life threatening, mental health conditions related to obsessive eating patterns Causes are numerous and complex Medical treatment is necessary and will require medical intervention from a team of specialists

39 Contacts & Websites American Dietetic Association General Nutrition Site Food and Drug Administration Food and Nutrition Service National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders

40 Local Contacts-Eating Disorders Texas A&M University Student Counseling (Help line) Dr. Mary Ann Covy Dr. Reed


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