Jobs in our body Insulate Protect Precursor of bile, vit D, reproductive hormones Cell membrane component Nervous system function
Jobs in our body Insulate Protect Precursor of bile, vit D, reproductive hormones Cell membrane component Nervous system function Our energy reserve (stored triglycerides TG)
Jobs in our food Primary type of lipid in food (TG) Source of fat soluble vitamins (ADEK) Source of essential fatty acids Fat soluble toxins/chemicals : ( Concentrated calories Tasty
Despite Homers ideas, cholesterol has no flavor, taste or energy value.
Cholesterol-good, bad or both?
Cholesterol Too little Nerve function Part of cell membrane Limit vitamin D, bile and reproductive hormone synthesis Too much in wrong place Deposits in arteries Clogs them up Heart attack, stroke, ischemia…….
Coronary Artery Disease: What is it? Arteries block-up over time Trigger sets off development of blockages If blocked, no oxygen/nutrient to heart Tissue dies beyond blockage e.g. artery feeding heart blocked heart attack
Triggers initiate plaque build-up Smoking Hypertension Diabetes Inflammation High blood cholesterol (from diet or liver) Recall: How do lipids travel in our blood?
Digestion: complicated, slow process Absorbed as chylomicrons (lipoprotein= LP) Go to liver made into other LPs LPs transport most all lipid soluble substances thru body
Lipoprotein primer Made by the body; not in our food Particles with a lipid core and a protein coat Chylomicron: dietary TG repackaged in the wall of the small intestine travel to liver Liver repackages chylomicrons into other lipoproteins HDL LDL
Lipoproteins: Role in heart health LDL…bad (cholesterol) stuff HDL...good (cholesterol) for heart health Both are influenced by lifestyle
Smart steps to a healthy heart Maintain healthy weight Be physically active Manage stress Do not smoke Do not drink excessively Eat a Heart Smart Diet
KEYSTONE STEPS-HEART SMART DIET Eat more color Eat less sodium Eat more fiber Eat the right fats Name foods meet all 4 requirements!
EAT MORE COLOR : Fruit and veggies fiber, potassium, antioxidants, reduce inflammation
EAT LESS SODIUM 75% + from processed foods THE PRIMARY CUPLRIT IS…
EAT MORE FIBER particularly soluble fiber
EAT THE RIGHT FATS TOTAL: ~20-35% Calories MORE: unsaturated LESS: saturated AVOID: trans fats
SOURCES OF UNSATURATED FAT Nuts Plant oils Avocado Seeds Fatty fish
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS (EFA) EFAs (type of unsaturated fat) Linoleic Acid (omega-6) Alpha-Linolenic Acid or ALA (omega-3) Unique jobs Energy source Excess, stored as fat!
EPA & DHA: The good stuff in O-3s Oily fish (ready made EPA/DHA) tuna, salmon, herring, sardines Vegetarian sources (ALA* EPA/DHA) flaxseed meal, soybean/tofu/walnuts/ dark leafy greens/ fortified foods
SOURCES OF SATURATED FAT Animal products Tropical oils
EAT LESS SATURATED FATS Raises LDL: Clogs arteries Produces inflammatory compounds that promote disease Reduces arterial elasticity Goal <7 % of calories
AVOID TRANS FAT No safe level of intake Raises LDL Decreases HDL risk of heart attack, stroke and sudden death
The devil is in the detail. Read !
Pair and Share 1.We use cholesterol to make what life sustaining substances? 2. Describe the major components of a heart healthy diet. 3. What is our primary form of reserve body fuel? 4. If we too much, or not enough cholesterol in the body, what happens? 5. What are the major triggers of arterial blockage?
Heart Healthy Tips Eat real food; Mostly plants !!; Not too much Eat fatty foods with caution (<30%Cal) Replace sat/trans fat with unsaturated fat Ditch the salt shaker and salty sauces! Add fiber, esp soluble….from foods Limit alcohol intake Be physically active Quit smoking***
How many Calories do we store as fat???? Given: 454 g/lb AND 9 Cal/gm of fat IF: you weigh 150 lb with 20% body fat THEN: you have 30 lb stored body fat….or… 122,580 fat Cal = 30 lb x 454 g/lb x 9 Cal/g How many Calories do you store?
How Much Omega-3 for heart health? If you are healthy ~500 mg EPA and DHA/day If high triglycerides; heart disease; rheumatoid arthritis 1-3+ gm EPA and DHA daily