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Fats and Cholesterol in Health

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Presentation on theme: "Fats and Cholesterol in Health"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fats and Cholesterol in Health
Unit 18

2 Important Facts about Fat
Type of fat is more important than total fat Excess calories cause weight gain, not fat Healthy diets provide 20-35% of calories from “healthy” fats

3 Facts about Fats Lipids
Compounds that are insoluble in water and soluble in fat Includes triglycerides, saturated and unsaturated fats, oils, cholesterol, and essential fatty acids

4 Functions of Dietary Fats
Energy source 9 calories/gram Carriers of fat-soluble nutrients Essential fatty acids Fat soluble vitamins (D,E,K,A)

5 Functions of Dietary Fats
Energy stores Excess calories are converted to triglycerides 1 pound body fat ~ 3500 calories

6 Functions of Dietary Fats
Cushion and protect internal organs Provide insulation against cold

7 Functions of Dietary Fats
Increase flavor and palatability of food Contribute to the sensation of feeling full Components of cell membranes, vitamin D, and sex hormones

8 Functions of Dietary Fats

9 Varieties of Fats There are many types of fat in food and in our bodies

10 Triglycerides Make up 98% of our fat intake and most of our body’s fat store Transported in blood attached to protein carriers Used for energy and tissue maintenance

11 Saturated and Unsaturated Fats

12 Saturated and Unsaturated Fats
Carbon chains saturated with the maximum number of hydrogen atoms (all single bonds) Solid at room temperature Found in animal products Unsaturated fats Monounsaturated: One double bond Polyunsaturated: Two or more double bonds

13 Essential Fatty Acids Linoleic acid Omega-6 fatty acid
Component of all cell membranes, especially in nerves and brain Required for growth, skin, reproductive system Factor in regulation of blood pressure, clotting In sunflower, safflower, corn, and soybean oils

14 Essential Fatty Acids Alpha-linolenic acid Omega-3 fatty acid
Component of all cell membranes, especially in nerves and brain Has opposite effects of linoleic acid on regulation of blood pressure and clotting In walnuts, dark green leafy vegetables, flaxseed, canola, and soybean oils

15 Hydrogenated Fats Hydrogenation is used to transform unsaturated fats into saturated fats Turns liquid oils into solid fats Extends shelf life of processed foods Hydrogenation Addition of hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids Converts natural cis form into trans fat

16 Cis Fatty Acids Cis fatty acids
The most common, naturally-occurring form of unsaturated fatty acid Contain hydrogens located on the same side of doubly-bonded carbons

17 Trans Fatty Acids Trans fatty acids Trans fats
Unsaturated fatty acids in fats that contain atoms of hydrogen attached to opposite sides of carbon atoms joined by a double bond Trans fats Fats containing fatty acids in the trans form

18 Trans and Cis Fatty Acids

19 Trans Fats Trans fats produced by hydrogenation:
Raise blood cholesterol levels more than any other type of fat Increase risk of heart disease, stroke, sudden death from heart disease, type 2 diabetes As little as 2.2 grams/day increases risk Trans fat content required on labels

20 Checking Out Cholesterol
Cholesterol is found only in animal products

21 Sources of Cholesterol
2/3 of cholesterol is produced by the liver The rest is obtained from the diet

22 Contributions of Cholesterol
Is found in all cell membranes Is a major component of nerves and brain Is needed to produce estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D Cannot be used for energy

23 Mediterranean Diet High in “good” fats
Reduces risk of stroke and heart disease

24 “Good” Fats, “Bad” Fats “Bad” fats “Good” fats
Include trans fats, saturated fats, cholesterol Elevate total cholesterol and LDL levels Solid at room temperature (fats) “Good” fats Lower total cholesterol and LDL levels Raise HDL levels Liquid at room temperature (oils)

25 “Good” Fats, “Bad” Fats

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