Chapter 5 The Lipids: Fats, Oils, Phospholipids, and Sterols
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1 Chapter 5 The Lipids: Fats, Oils, Phospholipids, and Sterols Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney
2 Learning ObjectivesDescribe how and where dietary lipids are broken down and absorbed during digestion and how they are transported throughout the body.Describe the significance of the blood tests for HDL and LDL cholesterol.Describe the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the body, and discuss which may be too low in some people’s diets and how they can increase their intakes.
3 Learning ObjectivesDevelop a diet plan that provides enough of the right kinds of fats within calorie limits.Discuss evidence for the benefits and drawbacks of specific dietary fats in terms of their potential effects on human health.
4 Introduction Diet moderate in fats Three classes of lipids Lipids are necessary and valuableLipids can harm healthThree classes of lipidsTriglyceridesPhospholipidsSterols
5 Usefulness of Fats in the Body Chief storage form of energyProvides most energy for body’s workAdipose tissueSecretes hormonesPurposes of fatShock absorbers, insulation, cell membranesFat-soluble substances
13 Storing and Using the Body’s Fat Body conserves fat moleculesFat depotsExcess carbohydrateCall for energyDismantle stored triglyceridesRelease fatty acids into bloodCarbohydrate’s roleHow to use more fat for energy…
14 Dietary Fat, Cholesterol, and Health Heart and artery diseaseSaturated and trans fatsBeneficial fatsCancerDiet high in saturated fatsObesityOverconsumption of calories
15 Lipoproteins and Heart Disease Risk Lipoprotein movement in the bodyLiverTypes of lipoproteinsChylomicronsVery-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)Low-density lipoproteins (LDL)High-density lipoproteins (HDL)
25 Effects of Processing on Unsaturated Fats HydrogenationEffects on fatsOxidation of unsaturated oilsHydrogenation of oilsBenefits of hydrogenationNutrient lossesAlternatives to hydrogenation
26 Hydrogenation Yields Both Saturated and Trans-Fatty Acids
27 Effects of Processing on Unsaturated Fats Trans-fatty acidsPolyunsaturated fatsChange in chemical structureHealth effectsLDL and HDL cholesterolSimilarities with saturated fatTrans fat in foods
28 Fat in the Diet Meat, poultry, fish, dried peas & beans, eggs, & nuts Four categories for meatLimit intake to 5 to 7 ounces per dayChoosing low-fat meatsGround turkey or chicken vs. beefMilk, yogurt, and cheeseFoods not included in this categoryGrains
29 Calories, Fat, and Saturated Fat in Cooked Ground Meat Patties