2Fat: A soft greasy substance occurring in organic tissue which supplies concentrated energy to the body.
3* Fats are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. * Fats are non-soluble* Fats are the most concentrated source of energy in foods.* Fats have 9 calories per gram (more than double the other nutrients)* Fats are part of a group of compounds known as lipids* Fats are made up of components called fatty acids.
4The three basic types of fatty acids are monounsaturatedpolyunsaturatedsaturated
5Functions/Benefits of Fat in the Body/Diet * Fat can be stored and used as energy in unlimited amounts.* Fat is a crucial component of nerves, every nerve cell has a fat coatingwhich makes conductivity possible.* Fat provides the essential fatty acids necessary for life (Omega 3 and 6)* Fatty acids are an integral part of the plasma membrane of every cell inthe body.
6Functions/Benefits of Fat in the Body/Diet * Fats help to control blood pressure, aid in blood clotting, andinflammation.* Fats are part of some vital hormones.* Fats absorb, carry, and store vitamins A, D, E, and K.* Fat insulates the body against temperature change.
7Functions/Benefits of Fat in the Body/Diet * Fat cushions vital body organs (heart, liver, and stomach)* Fat gives the body its shape and curves.* Fat maintains healthy hair and skin.* Fat delays hunger and satisfies appetite.
8Dangers of a high fat diet Excess weight gainHeart disease (heart attack, high blood pressure)Extra stress on your joints (hip, knee replacements common in middle age)Diabetes (Type 2)
9Fatty Acids and Triglycerides A fatty acid is made up of a long chain of carbon atoms on which hydrogen atoms are attached with an acid group (oxygen) at the end of the chain. The variation in structure results in different components called “fatty acids” which can behave quite differently in the body.
10Fatty Acids and Triglycerides The major distinction among fatty acids is the degree of saturation, which refers to the number of hydrogen atoms that are attached to the carbon chains.*** More hydrogen = More saturation = Higher melting temperatures
11Saturated FatsAll available space on the carbon chain is loaded with hydrogen atoms. They have no double bonds. They are solid at room temperature. Mainly found in animals (meat , butter, lard) and palm kernel oil. Associated with heart disease.
12Monounsaturated FatsSome hydrogen atoms are absent due to one double bond in the fatty acids.These are liquid at room temperature and are usually derived from plants and some fish oils. Olive oil is a good example.May lower the risk of heart disease by reducing LDL’s (bad cholesterol).
13Polyunsaturated FatsThere are multiple double bonds in the fatty acid chains.These stay liquid even if refrigerated.Found in plants and some fish oils. Corn an soybean oils are good examples. Some polyunsaturated fats are hydrogenated to make them solid at room temperature, unfortunately this leads to saturation.
14Trans Fatty AcidsA type of fatty acid created during processing. In which food manufacturers “hydrogenate” oils to make them more stable or solid at room temperature. Margarine and vegetable shortenings are examples of this.Many processed, packaged and baked goods contain these hidden fats.Trans fatty acids are the worst & pose more of a health risk than saturated fatty acids.
15PhospholipidsLipids(fats) which contain phosphorous containing compounds in their chemical structure. Lecithin is a phospholipid made by the liver to emulsify fats. Lecithin is also found in foods like egg yolks.
16EmulsifiersAny substance that can mix water with fat. In the body phospholipids helps to breakdown fats in the blood.
17SterolsA class of lipids, including some hormones, Vitamin D, and cholesterol. Sterols are complex molecular rings of carbon atoms with attached fatty acid chains.
18CholesterolA white, waxy lipid made by the body that is a part of every cells. Cholesterol is found in foods of animal origin. Cholesterol is transported through the body by various proteins. Cholesterol may form plaque on artery walls if levels are too high, leading to atherosclerosis.
19Total Cholesterol Less than 200 mg/dL Desirable level 200 to 239 mg/dL Borderline high240 mg/dL and above High blood cholesterol*A person with this level has more than twice the risk of heart disease as someone whose cholesterol is <200 mg/dL.
20LipoproteinsA combination of fat droplets coated by proteins that help transport cholesterol and fats in the body. The two most common lipoproteins are high density lipoproteins (HDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL).
21High Density Lipoproteins (HDL’s) HDL’s pick up cholesterol from around the body and carry it to the liver to be emulsified. A high level of HDL is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease. AKA “good cholesterol”
22Low Density Lipoproteins: (LDL’s) LDL’s carry cholesterol to the body cells . Once in the bloodstream they become very “dense” and can coat the arteries. AKA “bad cholesterol