4Major Diet-Deficiency Diseases Common in ELDC’s TypeDiseaseSymptomsDistributionTreatmentProteindeficiencyKwashiorkorRetarded growth, apathy and swollen stomach, skin rashes. Deadly if untreated.Africa, S.E AsiaHigh-Protein fluids, well balanced diet.MarasmusSevere starvation in combination with lack of proteins. Wasting of tissue.Breast-milk, cereals, fats, oils;immediate treatment.VitaminBeri-beriVitamin B deficiency, wasting of limbs, nervous disorders, skin sores, heart failure.S.E AsiaVitamin B-rich foods, well-balanced diet.RicketsVitamin D deficiency, bone deformity of legs, pelvis and spine.Diet of calcium-rich food and vitamin D.
7Kwashiorkor Clinical Manifestations: Diagnostic Signs Edema Muscle wastingPsychomotor changesCommon SignsHair changesDiffuse depigmentation of skinMoonfaceAnemiaOccasional Signs:Flaky-paint rashNomaHepatomegalyAssociatedLaboratory:Decreased serum albuminEEG abnormalitiesIron & folic acid deficienciesLiver biopsy fatty or fibrosis may occur
8What are the symptoms? Swollen stomach Reddish discolouration of hair Miserable appearance with ‘moonface’Pigmentation loss in skinRetarded growthLoss of muscle mass
9Kwashiorkor Between 1-3 yrs old Cause/origin: Very low protein In places where starchy foods are main stapleNever exclusively dietary**an added aspect that is attributed to the advance of kwashiorkor is aflatoxin poisoning. Aflatoxins are produced by certain molds, and are ingested in connection with moldy foods. They can injure the liver DNA and consequently interfere with the manufacture of serum albumin.
11Where does kwashiorkor occur? EMDCsELDCsELDCsAfrica, e.g. Sudan, Ethiopia and MozambiqueS.E Asia
12What is Kwashiorkor?Condition resulting from inadequate protein/food intakeIt occurs in children that have been weaned as diet is replaced by a diet of starches/carbohydratesIt occurs most commonly in areas of famine, limited food supply, and low levels of education, which can lead to inadequate knowledge of proper dietIt is a result of extreme poverty!
13What are the treatments? Adequate diet – with carbohydrate, fat (10% of total calories), and protein (12 percent of total calories) will prevent kwashiorkor
15How can it be controlled? Improve food supplyDevelop new cropsImprove technologyEducate people on balanced diets
16Who helps to combat the disease? International organisations and aid agenciesWHOOxfamSave the Children Fund
17Save the Children Fund In Ethiopia they have provided food aid Organised relief flights to get food to the areas with the greatest needSet up education programmes for villagers to encourage them to grow vitamin rich foods to supplement a staple diet of maize