Presentation on theme: "Unit 12, P2 Know how media and technology influence modern sport Media : television, e.g. satellite television, increased participation, event programming,"— Presentation transcript:
Unit 12, P2 Know how media and technology influence modern sport Media : television, e.g. satellite television, increased participation, event programming, sponsorship, advertising, broadcast rights, presentation of national events, influence on rules of the game, sponsorship, Spectatorism, punditry, narrative technique; rule changes; timeouts; local and national press, e.g. magazines, sensationalism, gender imbalance, jingoism; internet eg chat rooms, fan sites, merchandising
The term media refers to the means of communication – The way in which information reaches a number of different people. There are a number of different media that report and comment on sport. – Newspapers – Television – Radio – Internet – Books – Film – Teletext – Mobile phones – Can you think of examples for each of these?
Television is one of the most important aspects of the media Different satellite broadcasters, such as Sky and ESPN, are able to pay high prices for the rights to show the sporting events, such as Premier League football. This puts a lot of money into the different sports – A lot of sports have switched from the traditional coverage on terrestrial channels, such as the BBC or ITV to the satellite channels in recent years. Can you give specific examples?
You will need some examples of different television rights in the UK. You could do with finding some of your own examples of TV deals. –Sky's schedule of games will increase from 92 to 115 per season in each of the three years from 2010 to 2013 inclusive. Sky paid £1.623bn for its rights, or £4.7m per game on average!
There are also events protected by the government. These can only be shown on terrestrial channels: – Group A (Full Live Coverage Protected) – The Olympic Games – The FIFA World Cup Finals Tournament – The European Football Championship Finals Tournament – The FA Cup Final – The Scottish FA Cup Final (in Scotland) – The Grand National – The Derby – The Wimbledon Tennis Finals – The Rugby League Challenge Cup Final – The Rugby World Cup Final For a full list vist http://www.culture.gov.uk/PDF/sport_on_television.pdfhttp://www.culture.gov.uk/PDF/sport_on_television.pdf
You will need to know different viewing figures for sports in the UK, as examples of the reach of sport. – Andy Murray – Tennis 7.0 Million July 2011 Andy Murray – Rugby World Cup 2007 – 3 rd highest in UK in 2007 – 13.13M in October 2007 Rugby World Cup 2007 – Football World Cup Final 2010 – Over 20 million British viewers Football World Cup Final 2010
Sport can pull in massive figures – England vs Argentina – 1998 – 23.8 Million England vs Argentina Even relatively minor events get large audiences – FA Cup 2007 – Middlesbrough vs Man United – 7.8Million FA Cup 2007 These trends have developed over the years, with no sports events featuring in the top ten until 1986.
Television reaches many people In an average week – 47.6 Million people (92%) watch television – The watch an average of 30 hours a week – Most of this (17 hours) is on terrestrial television – Dedicated sports channels (Sky and Setanta) get about an hour a week. Considering their specialism, this is massive. (All sky movies channels total at 38 minutes per week) – You can see a full breakdown of how many people watch television in different weeks here.here
Trends – Pay-per-view has developed in recent years. It is only for high level and specialist sports events such as: World Title boxing bouts. WWE Wrestling Premier League football – Currently attract 200,000 viewers per event. Extra income – More channels ESPN 1 & 2 Sky 1, 2, 3, 4 & News Eurosport etc
The press is made up of the local and national newspapers. Each area has a local newspaper, such as..... What do you think the local newspapers cover? There are two types of national newspapers Broadsheets, such as The Times and The Telegraph Tabloids, such as The Sun and the Star They report on issues of national importance, such as top level football, rugby and cricket matches
What are the differences between the broadsheets and the tabloids, in terms of: What they cover? National and International? How they cover it? Reports and interviews Sensational scoops Different sports covered? If you are unsure, have a look at some newspapers, or even visit their respective websites The Times The Telegraph The Guardian The Sun The Star The Daily Mirror The Oxford Mail
The power of the press The National press has a lot more power than the local press They reach millions of people Sometimes they have an editorial agenda Can you think of examples where the press has had a negative effect on sport, such as: John Terry affair with team-mate Wayne Bridges long-term partner. The press exposed the situation to the public Graham Taylor, Sven Goran Eriksson and Steve Mclarens treatment by the press when results started to go badly
The internet is now possibly the largest form of media. It has had quite a lot of positive effects: Websites allow real time viewing of sport, bringing it to a wider global audience Eg: The BBC shows sports that it doesnt have the space for in its schedules. Youtube has highlights and clips of thousands of sporting events Message boards Club websites Newspaper columns online
It has been blamed, however for making children lazy and reducing participation by dragging people away from competitive sport. Do you think this is the case? Can you explain and evaluate your comments to get a Merit or Distinction?
Radio is generally a positive influence bringing live coverage and features to national and local audiences. There are a couple of national stations that cover sport, such as Five Live Talk Sport There are also numerous local stations. Often they provide commentary on local matches that would normally not be important enough to reach the national radio
There are a number of sports related magazines around at the moment. You will need to be able to name a couple of them. They tend to provide a more considered insight into the players and issues associated with sports than the newspapers are able to give, as their editors do not have to work to such tight deadlines. Talk sport interactive magazine Talk sport interactive magazine Mens Health Magazine
Autobiographies of sports personalities and reflective sports books are a popular way of making money, and also give an insight into the sport. They can have both a positive influence (bringing the inside track on a sport to the masses) and negative influence (Giving insight into unsavoury aspects such as drugs and violence, or mentioning other well known sports performers in a poor light, creating tension and conflict. Can you think of a number of examples of sports books. If you cant think of any, simply search Amazon for different sports books.Amazon
May increase participation To get a Merit/Distinction – You will need to give examples of sports that show increased participation when there is lots of coverage on the Television. Television funding puts money into the sport. The governing body may use this to support grass roots programmes – Can you name some. The FA is doing a lot here.The FA is doing a lot here. Allows players to be full time and professional Name the sports and give a few examples Clubs can provide better facilities/equipment/players Is this always true? If all the clubs get more money, surely they are all chasing the same players? Positive role models promote good behaviour Name a couple of good role models and say why Can bring different ethnic groups together Eg – French World Cup squads in 2006 England Cricket team – Inclusion of Asian and West Indian descendents.
Reduced participation People watching TV or using the internet The majority of money stays at the top level. Proportionately only a small amount of the FA and LTAs revenues are invested in grassroots development Only some sports become fully professional Give some examples of sports that do not make enough money in this country to be professional The more successful clubs become richer Look at the money given to the winners of the Premier League, compared with the team that finishes 15 th – Can you find out the difference? Negative role models promote poor behaviour Can you name some negative role models Media hype can lead to nationalism and xenophobia, with ant feelings against other countries or groups. Can you think of examples where the press have hyped a game. England vs Germany, Argentina, France
Television broadcast rights brings in money to the sports This in turn brings in more sponsors, as they will be getting a access to a larger audience This money allows clubs to spend on players, wages and stadia. Look at the proliferation of new stadia, the cost of football players, and their wages. All of this has gone through a massive increase since the inception of the FA Premier League (and their subsequent deal with BSkyB) in 1992.
Global sporting events can help to generate huge sums of money, as well as rebuild parts of the city, develop infrastructure and sporting facilities Evidence the plans for the 2012 Olympics and the sustainable legacy of a regenerated East End of London The 2006 World Cup saw a massive profit of nearly £750 Million This has not always been the case. Up until the Los Angeles Olympics of 1984, when the Americans introduced the idea of corporate partnerships with large blue chip companies, such as Canon, Coca- Cola and Adidas, all of the Olympic games made heavy losses for their host cities.
To make sport more attractive to the viewing public, media and sometimes to fit in with television, many sports have developed their rules accordingly. You will need to produce some examples to illustrate this if you want to get the better grades, such as: Pass back rule in football Goal keeper 6 seconds rule in football Bonus points in rugby for scoring more tries Tries in rugby moving from 3 to 4 to 5 points Free hit in limited overs cricket Adoption of Hawkeye with challenges in Tennis American sports are the extreme of this. Think of American football and Basketball where there are numerous breaks in play with time-outs. This allows considerable scope for advertisements.
The timings of events have been altered to suit the television audience Look at the weekend football programme that now runs from Friday evening to Monday evening The Champions League matches on two different nights to allow more viewers 6 Nations Rugby used to all be played on a Saturday afternoon at the same time. Now the three games are spread over the weekend, with an early and late kick off on the Saturday and a Sunday game. The Olympic swimming competition in Beijing was swapped with the finals being held in the morning Beijing time to maximise on American TV audiences These are not necessarily positive influences, particularly for the sports performers. What do you think?
Sports have changed their presentation to attract larger audiences Cricket in England followed the Australian lead by introducing day-night matches, running from 4.00 to 10.30pm What effect does this have? The introduction and spread of Twenty20, with games only lasting 3 hours has been hugely popular with huge audiences, and sold out grounds throughout the country. Half time and pre match entertainment has spread in all sports, in an attempt to make the match days value for money as a whole family day out.
The golden triangle, each needs the other to be successful Adidas, Puma, and Nike regularly battle it out at the World Cups. It is all about which players are wearing their kit – (endorsement) As well as which teams are successful The 1998 world cup was billed as Nike (Brazil) vs Adidas (France). This has happened on many different occasions. Can you name some others? Think of their different adverts that are around during the tournaments. These represent a significant investment in players and the tournament. There are some examples in the resources section.
Non sportswear manufacturers also use sport as an advertising medium. Look at the video of World Cup matches in the resources section Which other brands can you see advertised Coca-Cola has been associated with the World Cup since 1970, and is regularly seen using footballers to promote their products. Look at the videos of the Olympics Can you see any brands advertised here? The Olympics works with a number of corporate partners, who are allowed to display the Olympic logo on their products and advertise themselves as official partners. They do not advertise in the stadia.
For P2 you need to describe what each of the different media examples are and for m2 you need to explain the influence of the media on a selected sport (Football). Also you should explain the positives and negatives of each type of media. Include an image and start with an introduction on the media.
Television (satellite television, increased participation, event programming broadcast rights, presentation of national events. You will need some examples of different television rights in the UK. You could do with finding some of your own examples of TV deals) Local and national press (sensationalism, gender imbalance, punditry ) Internet (chat rooms, fan sites, merchandising) Sponsorship (Spectatorism, Money, Advertising)