Presentation on theme: "Know how media and technology influence modern sport"— Presentation transcript:
1Know how media and technology influence modern sport Unit 12, P2Know how media and technology influence modern sportMedia: television, e.g. satellite television, increased participation, event programming, sponsorship, advertising, broadcast rights, presentation of national events, influence on rules of the game, sponsorship, Spectatorism, punditry, narrative technique; rule changes; timeouts; local and national press, e.g. magazines, sensationalism, gender imbalance, jingoism; internet eg chat rooms, fan sites, merchandising
2The term media refers to the means of communication The way in which information reaches a number of different people.There are a number of different media that report and comment on sport.NewspapersTelevisionRadioInternetBooksFilmTeletextMobile phonesCan you think of examples for each of these?
3Television is one of the most important aspects of the media Different satellite broadcasters, such as Sky and ESPN, are able to pay high prices for the rights to show the sporting events, such as Premier League football.This puts a lot of money into the different sportsA lot of sports have switched from the traditional coverage on terrestrial channels, such as the BBC or ITV to the satellite channels in recent years. Can you give specific examples?
4You will need some examples of different television rights in the UK You will need some examples of different television rights in the UK. You could do with finding some of your own examples of TV deals.Sky's schedule of games will increase from 92 to 115 per season in each of the three years from 2010 to 2013 inclusive. Sky paid £1.623bn for its rights, or £4.7m per game on average!
5There are also events protected by the government There are also events protected by the government. These can only be shown on terrestrial channels:Group A (Full Live Coverage Protected)The Olympic GamesThe FIFA World Cup Finals TournamentThe European Football Championship Finals TournamentThe FA Cup FinalThe Scottish FA Cup Final (in Scotland)The Grand NationalThe DerbyThe Wimbledon Tennis FinalsThe Rugby League Challenge Cup FinalThe Rugby World Cup FinalFor a full list vist
6You will need to know different viewing figures for sports in the UK, as examples of the reach of sport.Andy Murray – Tennis 7.0 Million July 2011Rugby World Cup 2007 – 3rd highest in UK in 2007 – 13.13M in October 2007Football World Cup Final 2010 – Over 20 million British viewers
7Sport can pull in massive figures England vs Argentina – 1998 – MillionEven relatively minor events get large audiencesFA Cup 2007 – Middlesbrough vs Man United – 7.8MillionThese trends have developed over the years, with no sports events featuring in the top ten until 1986.
8Television reaches many people In an average week 47.6 Million people (92%) watch televisionThe watch an average of 30 hours a weekMost of this (17 hours) is on terrestrial televisionDedicated sports channels (Sky and Setanta) get about an hour a week.Considering their specialism, this is massive. (All sky movies channels total at 38 minutes per week)You can see a full breakdown of how many people watch television in different weeks here.
9TrendsPay-per-view has developed in recent years. It is only for high level and specialist sports events such as:World Title boxing bouts.WWE WrestlingPremier League footballCurrently attract 200,000 viewers per event. Extra incomeMore channelsESPN 1 & 2Sky 1, 2, 3, 4 & NewsEurosport etc
10The press is made up of the local and national newspapers. Each area has a local newspaper, such as.....What do you think the local newspapers cover?There are two types of national newspapers‘Broadsheets’, such as The Times and The TelegraphTabloids, such as The Sun and the StarThey report on issues of national importance, such as top level football, rugby and cricket matches
11What are the differences between the broadsheets and the tabloids, in terms of: What they cover?National and International?How they cover it?Reports and interviewsSensational scoopsDifferent sports covered?If you are unsure, have a look at some newspapers, or even visit their respective websitesThe TimesThe TelegraphThe GuardianThe SunThe StarThe Daily MirrorThe Oxford Mail
12The power of the pressThe National press has a lot more power than the local pressThey reach millions of peopleSometimes they have an editorial agendaCan you think of examples where the press has had a negative effect on sport, such as:John Terry affair with team-mate Wayne Bridge’s long-term partner. The press exposed the situation to the publicGraham Taylor, Sven Goran Eriksson and Steve Mclaren’s treatment by the press when results started to go badly
13The internet is now possibly the largest form of media. It has had quite a lot of positive effects:Websites allow real time viewing of sport, bringing it to a wider global audienceEg: The BBC shows sports that it doesn’t have the space for in it’s schedules.Youtube has highlights and clips of thousands of sporting eventsMessage boardsClub websitesNewspaper columns online
14It has been blamed, however for making children lazy and reducing participation by dragging people away from competitive sport.Do you think this is the case? Can you explain and evaluate your comments to get a Merit or Distinction?
15There are a couple of national stations that cover sport, such as Radio is generally a positive influence bringing live coverage and features to national and local audiences.There are a couple of national stations that cover sport, such asFive LiveTalk SportThere are also numerous local stations. Often they provide commentary on local matches that would normally not be important enough to reach the national radio
16Talk sport interactive magazine Men’s Health Magazine There are a number of sports related magazines around at the moment. You will need to be able to name a couple of them. They tend to provide a more considered insight into the players and issues associated with sports than the newspapers are able to give, as their editors do not have to work to such tight deadlines.Talk sport interactive magazineMen’s Health Magazine
17Autobiographies of sports personalities and reflective sports books are a popular way of making money, and also give an insight into the sport.They can have both a positive influence (bringing the inside track on a sport to the masses)and negative influence (Giving insight into unsavoury aspects such as drugs and violence, or mentioning other well known sports performers in a poor light, creating tension and conflict.Can you think of a number of examples of sports books. If you can’t think of any, simply search Amazon for different sports books.
18May increase participation To get a Merit/Distinction – You will need to give examples of sports that show increased participation when there is lots of coverage on the Television.Television funding puts money into the sport.The governing body may use this to support grass roots programmes – Can you name some. The FA is doing a lot here.Allows players to be full time and professionalName the sports and give a few examplesClubs can provide better facilities/equipment/playersIs this always true? If all the clubs get more money, surely they are all chasing the same players?Positive role models promote good behaviourName a couple of good role models and say whyCan bring different ethnic groups togetherEg – French World Cup squads in 2006England Cricket team – Inclusion of Asian and West Indian descendents.
19Reduced participation The majority of money stays at the top level. People watching TV or using the internetThe majority of money stays at the top level.Proportionately only a small amount of the FA and LTA’s revenues are invested in grassroots developmentOnly some sports become fully professionalGive some examples of sports that do not make enough money in this country to be professionalThe more successful clubs become richerLook at the money given to the winners of the Premier League, compared with the team that finishes 15th – Can you find out the difference?Negative role models promote poor behaviourCan you name some negative role modelsMedia hype can lead to nationalism and xenophobia, with ‘ant’ feelings against other countries or groups.Can you think of examples where the press have hyped a game. England vs Germany, Argentina, France
20Television broadcast rights brings in money to the sports This in turn brings in more sponsors, as they will be getting a access to a larger audienceThis money allows clubs to spend on players, wages and stadia.Look at the proliferation of new stadia, the cost of football players, and their wages. All of this has gone through a massive increase since the inception of the FA Premier League (and their subsequent deal with BSkyB) in 1992.
21This has not always been the case. Global sporting events can help to generate huge sums of money, as well as rebuild parts of the city, develop infrastructure and sporting facilitiesEvidence the plans for the 2012 Olympics and the sustainable legacy of a regenerated East End of LondonThe 2006 World Cup saw a massive profit of nearly £750 MillionThis has not always been the case.Up until the Los Angeles Olympics of 1984, when the Americans introduced the idea of corporate partnerships with large blue chip companies, such as Canon, Coca- Cola and Adidas, all of the Olympic games made heavy losses for their host cities.
22American sports are the extreme of this. To make sport more attractive to the viewing public, media and sometimes to fit in with television, many sports have developed their rules accordingly.You will need to produce some examples to illustrate this if you want to get the better grades, such as:Pass back rule in footballGoal keeper 6 seconds rule in footballBonus points in rugby for scoring more triesTries in rugby moving from 3 to 4 to 5 pointsFree hit in limited overs cricketAdoption of Hawkeye with challenges in TennisAmerican sports are the extreme of this.Think of American football and Basketball where there are numerous breaks in play with ‘time-outs’ . This allows considerable scope for advertisements.
23The timings of events have been altered to suit the television audience Look at the weekend football programme that now runs from Friday evening to Monday eveningThe Champions League matches on two different nights to allow more viewers6 Nations Rugby used to all be played on a Saturday afternoon at the same time. Now the three games are spread over the weekend, with an early and late kick off on the Saturday and a Sunday game.The Olympic swimming competition in Beijing was swapped with the finals being held in the morning Beijing time to maximise on American TV audiencesThese are not necessarily positive influences, particularly for the sports performers. What do you think?
24Sports have changed their presentation to attract larger audiences Cricket in England followed the Australian lead by introducing day-night matches, running from to 10.30pmWhat effect does this have?The introduction and spread of Twenty20, with games only lasting 3 hours has been hugely popular with huge audiences, and sold out grounds throughout the country.Half time and pre match entertainment has spread in all sports, in an attempt to make the match days value for money as a whole family day out.
25The golden triangle, each needs the other to be successful Adidas, Puma, and Nike regularly battle it out at the World Cups.It is all about which players are wearing their kit – (endorsement)As well as which teams are successfulThe 1998 world cup was billed as Nike (Brazil) vs Adidas (France). This has happened on many different occasions. Can you name some others?Think of their different adverts that are around during the tournaments. These represent a significant investment in players and the tournament. There are some examples in the resources section.
26Non sportswear manufacturers also use sport as an advertising medium. Look at the video of World Cup matches in the resources sectionWhich other brands can you see advertisedCoca-Cola has been associated with the World Cup since 1970, and is regularly seen using footballers to promote their products.Look at the videos of the OlympicsCan you see any brands advertised here?The Olympics works with a number of corporate partners, who are allowed to display the Olympic logo on their products and advertise themselves as official partners. They do not advertise in the stadia.
27For P2 you need to describe what each of the different media examples are and for m2 you need to explain the influence of the media on a selected sport (Football). Also you should explain the positives and negatives of each type of media. Include an image and start with an introduction on the media.
28Television (satellite television, increased participation, event programming broadcast rights, presentation of national events. You will need some examples of different television rights in the UK. You could do with finding some of your own examples of TV deals) Local and national press (sensationalism, gender imbalance, punditry ) Internet(chat rooms, fan sites, merchandising) Sponsorship(Spectatorism, Money, Advertising)