2What does this mean? Who owns the TV channels and the Newspapers? Who controls what information the give out?Where does their money come from?How do they make more money?
3Ownership, control and finance Questions from previous exam papers: From the media industry you have studied today, identify two different types of media ownership?How might the ownership of a media organisation affect its output?From your studies of the media industries you will know that media organisations can vary in size and nature. What is a ‘media conglomerate’?Media organisations need to find money to finance their operations. Name one way in which an organisation in that industry generates income.Extra thinking: Do you know any of the answers already?
4Key words: Concentration of ownership Bias Media Imperialism conglomeratesIntegrationconvergence of Media Industriesadditional content
5Bias only their viewpoint TimesSunMirrorGuardianConservative (Tory)-right wingLabour (left)
8What types of media ownership are there? Public ownershipPublic ownership - an example of a public ownersip would be the BBC. -The BBC is finances by a license fee (audience) -The bbc is not owned by shareholders so its profit motive is paramountCommercial ownershipWhen industries make their money through commercials and advertisement- For example the ITV and CHANNEL FOUR are owned by a commercial ownership as they are financed and make their money through things like advertising and commercials (merchandise)Sometimes the channels and the info they give out can be effected by who sponsors themHow would the ownership effect the output (what it says or writes about?
9Commercial ownership- how does this effect it’s output(what it shows) Commercial channels such as ITV can be effected by who has paid to advertise eg product placement and sponsorsIt may also mean that they may only show stories that are to do with it’s shareholders or sponsors-Therefore it has bias .This also works with newscorp owned times and the sun…they want to get the biggest audience possible so they may publish the popular or commercially paid storiesd to get more readers or money. (they also may have political bias effecting stories).BBC has to be unbiased-as the public own it
10CONGLOMERATE“A large international organisation that owns a lot of companies in different media industries.”(these are often American companies).
11OwnershipMedia conglomerate: A large international organisation that owns a lot of companies in different media industries. Examples are Disney, Time Warner and News Corp.
13Concentration of media One effect of the concentration of media ownership is that the media market is dominated by a small number of companies- (these are mostly American). Is this a positive or negative thing? Write down a good thing and a bad thing
14Bad things about media conglomerates: Small number of companies own the media companiesLack of competitionOwners have a lot of power to present their political views to large audiences
15Good things about media conglomerates They could have a positive influence-over politics.Wider target audience and are far reachingNews is consistent.They can work as a powerful force-eg Sarah Payne.Job security-they are so big they are unlikely to go under
17Ownership, control and funding. NewspapersOwnership, control and funding.
18How do newspapers make money? Write down the 2 main reasons?
19How are newspapers funded? 80% of the money is made from advertisingMost of the rest is made from salesBut… If the sales fall then so will the money made from advertising. Companies want to advertise where people will see their products!
20Ownership, control and funding. NewspapersOwnership, control and funding.
21How do TV channels make money? How does the BBC make money?Extra thinking: Is this different form channels like ITV?
22£3.65bn £145.50 Public pay licence fee Govt give BBC a lump sum GOVERNMENT£145.50£3.65bnPublic pay licence feeGovt give BBC a lump sumGovt collect the money
23How the BBC Spend their £3.56bn each year (2009-2010 data) 66% - All TV17% - National and local radio6% - Online e.g. BBC websites, iPlayer11% - Other e.g. transmission and licence fee collection costs
24How else, other than the licence fee, does the BBC make money?
26Sponsorship and adverts Selling formatsSponsorship and advertsMerchandise
27Financing the TV industry Funding the television industryBBCThe BBC is partly funded from the TV licence fee. This is £ per household.It also makes money from its commercial interests in the same way as any other TV company.Commercial television makes money from advertising and sponsorship.ITVMost top ITV shows have sponsors:Coronation Street is sponsored by compare the marketOther ways television companies make money are:Merchandising linked to programmesSelling programmes to other countries/channelsSelling formats for shows such as Big Brother, Pop Idol etcAnd also through making audiences pay for additional content
28Additional content- financing TV Competitions‘Phone ins’Extra channels…eg movies, sportsRed buttonMerchandise
29Now answer these questions in your book (each worth 2 marks in exam) From the media industry you have studied today, identify two different types of media ownership?How might the ownership of a media organisation affect its output?From your studies of the media industries you will know that media organisations can vary in size and nature. What is a ‘media conglomerate’?Media organisations need to find money to finance their operations. Name one way in which an organisation in that industry generates income.