Presentation on theme: "A Two- Party Stalemate In the 1890s, the groups of potential voters who were disenfranchised were A.all of the answers below B.most women C.poor Southern."— Presentation transcript:
CONGRESS CONTROLLED BY Lib. Reps or Dems AS REPS SPLIT THEIR VOTES CONKLING STALWARTS BLAINE HALFBREEDS REFORMERS MUGWUMPS Liberal Republicans
The Presidency as a Symbolic Office Party bosses ruled. Presidents should avoid offending any factions within their own party. The President just doled out federal jobs. Senator Roscoe Conkling 1865 53,000 people worked for the federal govt. 1890 166,000
PRESIDENCY: NOMINATED BY PARTY BOSSES FOR PURELY POLITICAL REASONS (swing states & Nobodies) these men let Congress be in charge Machiavelli said in 1500 that you can not have great leaders in times of peace
After the excesses of federal power during the Civil War, America was ready to curb its growth again. During periods of economic growth Americans prefer hands off presidents.
During the late 1800s, the function of the president was to A.use his position as leader of both his party and the nation to control Congress B.spend much of his time making political appointments C.persuade Congress to agree on the subjects under debate and make the government's position clear to the press D.suggest legislation to Congress and mediate the conflicts between the two political parties E.create major fiscal and military policies
ECONOMIC GROWTH EXCEPT 1873-76 AND 1893-1897. HUGE FEDERAL SURPLUSES-- SO MAKE UP JOBS AND BUY VOTES. $20.00 PER VOTE, G.A.R. PENSIONS, 80% VOTER TURNOUT, ETHNIC DIVISIONS, ETC.
WEALTHY MIDDLE CLASS BLACKS (when they could vote) HIGH TARIFFS Some LARGE CITIES HARD $ MEN GAR Sold morality & and the govt should control BOTH economic and moral affairs of society Northern Protestants Old WASPs IMMIGRANTS NYC, and many other cities (urban poor) MW FARMERS LOW TARRIFF GREENBACKS. Ohio Idea caused a split in the party, but SLOWLY moved toward softer money White SOUTHERNERS especially CSA vets. More diverse ethnically and more tolerant of alternate lifestyles Catholics REPUBLICANS DEMOCRATS
During the late 1800s, the ONLY significant form of federal assistance (welfare) to individuals was A.the old-age benefit B.the retired veterans' pension C.health care for the poor D.support for widows and orphans E.Social Security for retired workers
SWING STATES NEW YORK****** ILLINOIS INDIANA OHIO 90% of ALL presidential and vice-presidential candidates came from these four states. Tongs of San Francisco
GRANTS ADMIN: Decide Not to annex Dom. Rep. 15th amendment ratified Last of seceded states admitted 1870 Amnesty for CSA officers 1872 Old Civil War Morrill Tariff reduced Coinage Act of 1873 removes silver as a form of specie. Panic of 1873 hits. Hard-money policies dont causebut exacerbate the Panic
During the late 1800s, the federal government had a reputation for A.creating conflicts B.being very active in reform movements C.being concerned with international affairs D.being stronger than most national governments E.doing very little to ease growing problems
Vetoes Bill to issue more Greenbacks (would have caused inflationhelping debtors and poor). Specie Resumption Act. By stockpiling gold to buy back Greenbacks Contraction occurred. Deflation increased ($19.42 per capita to $19.37by 1890 its ONLY up to $22.67), But because of thison Greenback Redemption Day most people just kept their now sound (but scarce) Greenbacks
GRANT CONTINUED Hard-money men are happy, but at the polls in 1874 there is a backlash. Democrats came to control the House-- & in 1878 the Greenback Labor Party was formed to fight FOR inflation. Custer defeated at Little Big Horn Centennial Expo @ Philly (1876) Whiskey ring exposed (1874)
Known as His Fraudulancy as he had to cheat in order to beat Tilden. Known for his Dry Admin. Said he was much prouder to be a Union General than President Electoral Count Act 1877 creates a bi-partisan commission of 8 Reps and 7 Dems to count the votes in contested states. Hayes wins. Civil Service reform begun Water flowed like champagne Reconstruction ENDS 1877 RR Strikes ended by Fed. Troops Molly McGuires arrested. Infiltrated by Pinkertons
KKK and Jim Crow Laws throughout the South. Reconstruction ends in utter failure. Right of States to regulate RRs upheld Greenback Party @ its height (1878) Bland-Allison Act passed over his veto(1878). Puts silver back on specie listgovt must buy b/w 2 and 4 million dollars of silver per month (GNP was about $1 billion). Too little to cause the desired (by debtors) inflation needed. Specie repayments resumed 1879
1880 Presidential Election: Republicans Half BreedsStalwarts Sen. James G. Blaine Sen. Roscoe Conkling (Maine) (New York) James A. Garfield Chester A. Arthur (VP) compromise
1881: Garfield Assassinated! Charles Guiteau: I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is President now!
Although A Stalwart Republican (Conkling) he fought against the Spoils System. Assassinated for his troubles (Guiteaurefused govt job) Calls for reform led to Congressional action VP Arthur takes over.
Chester A. Arthur: The Fox in the Chicken Coup?
In the political battles of the late 1800s, the Stalwarts and the Half-Breeds were A.groups who favored civil service reform B.the nicknames of the rival Republican and Democratic political machines C.two rival factions within the Republican party who fought over political patronage D.the nicknames of the conservative and liberal wings of the Democratic party E.opposing sides regarding the future of Reconstruction
Arthurs Term 81-85 : Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Immigration Act (1882) No paupers, criminals, moron, etc. 1st US Steel warships
**Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883) The Magna Carta of civil service reform. 1883 14,000 out of 117,000 federal govt. jobs became civil service exam positions. 1900 100,000 out of 200,000 civil service federal govt. jobs. Tariff Act 1883 (huge fed surplus $$$ but the tariffs kept going up)
In California, anti-Chinese sentiment grew to the point that A.the federal government deported many Chinese B.the state government banned anti-Chinese political parties C.the state government passed a special income tax on Chinese only D.the local governments required Chinese to live separately in Chinatowns E.the federal government prohibited any further Chinese immigration into the country
Republican Mugwumps Reformers who wouldnt re-nominate Chester A. Arthur. Reform to them create a disinterested, impartial govt. run by an educated elite like themselves. Social Darwinists. Laissez faire government to them: Favoritism & the spoils system seen as govt. intervention in society. Their target was ending political corruption, not social or economic reform!
The Mugwumps Men may come and men may go, but the work of reform shall go on forever. Will support Cleveland in the 1884 election.
The purpose of the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883 was to A.establish the first racial quotas for government jobs B.fill some government jobs on the basis of competitive examinations, to reduce spoils. C.ensure that appointments to government jobs were approved by Congress D.declare illegal the system of city political machines and boss rule E.create a board of appeals for labor disputes
The election of 1884 was typical of national contests in the late 1800s because of its emphasis on A.public issues rather than personalities B.change rather than stability C.abilities rather than party loyalty D.personalities rather than policies E.capitalism and socialism
A Dirty Campaign Ma, Ma…wheres my pa? Hes going to the White House, ha… ha… ha…!
Little Lost Mugwump Blaine in 1884 tried to play the role of reformer, and bring the Republican sheep to the ballot box, but…
UGLY HONEST Public Office is Public Trust Heated and nasty election on the part of James G. Blaines Half Breed Republicans. Ma, Ma, wheres Pa? Gone to Washington, Ha Ha Ha!! Blaine Loses when he does not denounce the Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion speech. Enough NYC Irish vote democrat in response Also hurt by the Burn this letter scandal. Cleveland is elected by the Republican Mugwump reformers who vote Dem rather than corrupt Blaine. BUT NO REAL ISSUES
Clevelands Events 1884-1888 Pres. Succession Act 1886 Interstate Commerce Act 1887 Anti-Polygamy Law (Utah) Vetoed 413 Pork Bills in 4 years. A Public office is a public TRUST His laissez-faire presidency: – Opposed bills to assist the poor as well as the rich. – Vetoed over 200 special pension bills for Civil War veterans!
The Tariff Issue After the Civil War, Congress raised tariffs to protect new US industries. Big business wanted to continue this; consumers did not. 1885 tariffs earned the US $100 mil. In surplus! Mugwumps opposed it WHY??? President Clevelands view on tariffs???? Tariffs became a major issue in the 1888 presidential election.
Grover Cleveland lost the election of 1888 partly because of the issue of A.lowering tariffs B.restricting immigration C.regulating big business D.passing civil service legislation E.supporting civil rights
Changing Public Opinion Americans wanted the federal govt. to deal with growing soc. & eco. problems & to curb the power of the trusts: Interstate Commerce Act – 1887 Sherman Antitrust Act – 1890 McKinley Tariff – 1890 o Based on the theory that prosperity flowed directly from protectionism. o Increased already high rates another 4%! Rep. Party suffered big losses in 1890 (even McKinley lost his House seat!).
IT IS HARRISONS ADMINISTRATION THAT CREATES THE PANIC OF 1893 Mckinley Tariff Act 48.4% (1890). He had defeated Cleveland on the tariff issueso he felt compelled to raise it to ridiculous heights. Backlash in 1890 puts Dems in charge of Congress again. 1892 sees the rise of the Populist Party Sherman Silver Purchase Act Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) Dependent Pension Act (1890) Boomer Sooner Close and Near
Political party loyalties of the late 1800s tended to remain stable because A.economic issues divided the electorate into well- organized opposing groups B.voting participation was low and political change slow C.only one political party garnered any substantial support D.voting patterns were determined more by sharp cultural and ethnic differences rather than political issues E.few significant economic or social changes took place, and thus few political issues developed
Populist Platform Unlimited coinage of silver at 16:1to create inflation (to help western and southern debtors) Socialized RRs, telegraph, and telephone (to help the West) A graduated income tax Direct election of Senators 1 term limit on the Presidency Initiative, Referendum and Recall 10 hour work-day (trying to win labor vote) Immigration restrictions (trying to win labor vote) Use of strikes to attack unfair business practices. Southern alliance of poor black and white farmers (to win the South)
Despite major gains in 1892… See map on p. 523 South returns to racism and hatredlast black voters were disenfranchised by Poll Taxes, Literacy Tests, etc. Homestead (Carnegies Steel factory) strike turns into a riot that has to broken by FEDERAL troops. Panic of 1893-1897 guts American business. No patience for reform is left.
HE INHERITS FROM HARRISON the Panic of 1893 with: High Inflation (partly due to silver) High unemployment High Misery BY THE END OF HIS 2 nd TERM HE IS THE MOST DISLIKED PRESIDENT OF ALL TIMES.
Cleveland Loses Support Fast! The only President to serve two non- consecutive terms. Blamed for the 1893 Panic. Defended the gold standard. Used federal troops in the 1894 Pullman strike. Repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.
The Silver Issue Crime of 73 demonetization of silver (govt. stopped coining silver). Bland-Allison Act (1878) limited silver coinage to $2-$4 mil. per mo. (based on the 16:1 ratio of silver to gold). Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890) The US Treasury must purchase $4.5 mil. oz. of silver a month. Govt. deposited most silver in the US Treasury rather than circulation.
Clevelands ill-fated attempts to fix the problems Overspeculation in factories (addicted to growth during C.W.) Labor disorder Agricultural depression Too much silver caused a drop in the dollar internationally Foreign bankers called in loans
The biggest Problem 1.U.S govt has to buy Silver with paper currency 2.The seller then trades their new paper currency for GOLD. 3.Happens every time the govt buys silver. 4.The rule is the govt needs $100 million in gold to support $350 million in currency. 5.By 1894 the gold reserve has dropped to $41 million because of #2. 6.Therefore the govt should STOP producing paper $, but that will create a PANIC !!!!
Clevelands Solution He borrows $65 million from banker (Republican) J.P. Morgan at a $7 million commission for the banker. Makes Cleveland look like Morgans errand boy. Repeals the Sherman Silver Purchase Act Replaces the very high McKinley Tariff with the Wilson-Gorman Tariff, but riders to it make it just as high He does get a temporary 2% tax on the wealthy, but the S.C. declares it unconstitutional
BUT, ITS REALLY AT THE STATE/LOCAL LEVEL THAT THE WHEELING & DEALING OF POLITICS WAS DONE:
POLITICAL MACHINES SOLD GOVT SERVICES TO HIGHEST BIDDER –SANDBAGGING –KICKBACKS –BRIBERY SPOILS SYSTEM 80% VOTER TURNOUT POLITICS AS A CAREER. Politics as organized Big Bidness
The urban political machine had all of the following goals except A.making money for the political boss B.providing some of the services the new immigrants needed C.creating jobs in city government for the supporters of the machine D.finding jobs for the unemployed E.keeping the Irish Catholics from gaining control of city government
During the late 1800s, the most significant effect of the change in incomes upon society was that A.the income of the lower class dropped significantly B.the middle class grew larger and more prosperous C.the upper class showed little change in its wealth D."real" wages dropped for everyone, despite a rise in "money" wages E.the upper class lost great amounts of wealth