5CONGRESS CONTROLLED BY Lib. Rep’s or Dem’s AS REP’S SPLIT THEIR VOTES BLAINEHALFBREEDSCONKLING STALWARTSREFORMERS“MUGWUMPS”“Liberal Republicans”
6The Presidency as a Symbolic Office Party bosses ruled.Presidents should avoid offending any factions within their own party.The President just doled out federal jobs. Senator Roscoe Conkling1865 53,000 people worked for the federal govt.1890 166,000 “ “ “ “ “ “
7PRESIDENCY: NOMINATED BY PARTY BOSSES FOR PURELY POLITICAL REASONS (swing states & “Nobodies”) these men let Congress be in chargeMachiavelli said in 1500 that you can not have great leaders in times of peace
8After the “excesses” of federal power during the Civil War, America was ready to curb its growth again.During periods of economic growth Americans prefer “hands off” presidents.
9During the late 1800s, the function of the president was to use his position as leader of both his party and the nation to control Congressspend much of his time making political appointmentspersuade Congress to agree on the subjects under debate and make the government's position clear to the presssuggest legislation to Congress and mediate the conflicts between the two political partiescreate major fiscal and military policies
11Just Give Him Graft And Corruption Hourly--Cleveland
12The Rogues Gallery Johnson Rep??? Grant Rep Hayes Rep Garfield Rep Arthur RepCleveland DemHarrison RepCleveland Again Dem
13ECONOMIC GROWTH EXCEPT 1873-76 AND 1893-1897 ECONOMIC GROWTH EXCEPT AND HUGE FEDERAL SURPLUSES--SO MAKE UP JOBS AND BUY VOTES. $20.00 PER VOTE, G.A.R. PENSIONS, 80% VOTER TURNOUT, ETHNIC DIVISIONS, ETC.
14REPUBLICANS DEMOCRATS WEALTHY MIDDLE CLASS BLACKS (when they could vote)HIGH TARIFFSSome LARGE CITIESHARD $ MENGARSold “morality” & and the gov’t should control BOTH economic and moral affairs of societyNorthern ProtestantsOld WASPsIMMIGRANTSNYC, and many other cities (urban poor)MW FARMERSLOW TARRIFFGREENBACKS. “Ohio Idea” caused a split in the party, but SLOWLY moved toward softer moneyWhite SOUTHERNERS especially CSA vets.More diverse ethnically and more tolerant of “alternate” lifestylesCatholics
15the retired veterans' pension health care for the poor During the late 1800s, the ONLY significant form of federal assistance (welfare) to individuals wasthe old-age benefitthe retired veterans' pensionhealth care for the poorsupport for widows and orphansSocial Security for retired workers
16SWING STATESNEW YORK******ILLINOISINDIANAOHIO90% of ALL presidential and vice-presidential candidates came from these four states.Tongs ofSan Francisco
25GRANT’S ADMIN: Decide Not to annex Dom. Rep. 15th amendment ratified Last of “seceded” states admitted 1870Amnesty for CSA officers 1872Old Civil War Morrill Tariff reducedCoinage Act of 1873 removes silver as a form of specie.Panic of 1873 hits. Hard-money policies don’t cause—but exacerbate the Panic
26During the late 1800s, the federal government had a reputation for creating conflictsbeing very active in reform movementsbeing concerned with international affairsbeing stronger than most national governmentsdoing very little to ease growing problems
27Vetoes Bill to issue more Greenbacks (would have caused inflation—helping debtors and poor). Specie Resumption Act. By stockpiling gold to buy back Greenbacks “Contraction” occurred. Deflation increased ($19.42 per capita to $19.37—by 1890 its ONLY up to $22.67),But because of this—on Greenback Redemption Day most people just kept their now sound (but scarce) Greenbacks
28GRANT CONTINUEDHard-money men are happy, but at the polls in 1874 there is a backlash. Democrats came to control the House--& in 1878 the Greenback Labor Party was formed to fight FOR inflation.Custer defeated at Little Big HornCentennial Philly (1876)Whiskey ring exposed (1874)
30Known as “His Fraudulancy” as he had to cheat in order to beat Tilden Known as “His Fraudulancy” as he had to cheat in order to beat Tilden. Known for his Dry Admin. Said he was much prouder to be a Union General than PresidentElectoral Count Act 1877 creates a bi-partisan commission of 8 Rep’s and 7 Dem’s to count the votes in contested states. Hayes “wins”.Civil Service reform begun“Water flowed like champagne”Reconstruction ENDS 1877RR Strikes ended by Fed. TroopsMolly McGuires arrested. Infiltrated by Pinkertons
31KKK and Jim Crow Laws throughout the South KKK and Jim Crow Laws throughout the South. Reconstruction ends in utter failure.Right of States to regulate RR’s upheldGreenback its height (1878)Bland-Allison Act passed over his veto(1878). Puts silver back on specie list—gov’t must buy b/w 2 and 4 million dollars of silver per month (GNP was about $1 billion). Too little to cause the desired (by debtors) inflation needed.Specie repayments resumed 1879
351880 Presidential Election: Republicans Half BreedsStalwartsSen. James G. Blaine Sen. Roscoe Conkling (Maine) (New York)compromiseJames A. Garfield Chester A. Arthur (VP)
361881: Garfield Assassinated! Charles Guiteau: I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is President now!
37Although A Stalwart Republican (Conkling) he fought against the Spoils System. Assassinated for his troubles (Guiteau—refused gov’t job)Calls for reform led to Congressional actionVP Arthur takes over.
40In the political battles of the late 1800s, the Stalwarts and the Half-Breeds were groups who favored civil service reformthe nicknames of the rival Republican and Democratic political machinestwo rival factions within the Republican party who fought over political patronagethe nicknames of the conservative and liberal wings of the Democratic partyopposing sides regarding the future of Reconstruction
41Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Arthur’s Term ’81’-’85’ :Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)Immigration Act (1882) No paupers, criminals, moron, etc.1st US Steel warships
43**Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883) The “Magna Carta” of civil service reform.1883 14,000 out of 117,000 federal govt. jobs became civil service exam positions.1900 100,000 out of ,000 civil service federal govt. jobs.Tariff Act 1883 (huge fed surplus $$$ but the tariffs kept going up)
44In California, anti-Chinese sentiment grew to the point that the federal government deported many Chinesethe state government banned anti-Chinese political partiesthe state government passed a special income tax on Chinese onlythe local governments required Chinese to live separately in Chinatownsthe federal government prohibited any further Chinese immigration into the country
45Republican “Mugwumps” Reformers who wouldn’t re-nominate Chester A. Arthur.Reform to them create a disinterested, impartial govt. run by an educated elite like themselves.Social Darwinists.Laissez faire government to them:Favoritism & the spoils system seen as govt. intervention in society.Their target was ending political corruption, not social or economic reform!
46The MugwumpsMen may come and men may go, but the work of reform shall go on forever.Will support Cleveland in the election.
47The purpose of the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883 was to establish the first racial quotas for government jobsfill some government jobs on the basis of competitive examinations, to reduce “spoils”.ensure that appointments to government jobs were approved by Congressdeclare illegal the system of city political machines and boss rulecreate a board of appeals for labor disputes
481884 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland James Blaine * (DEM) (REP)
51The election of 1884 was typical of national contests in the late 1800s because of its emphasis on public issues rather than personalitieschange rather than stabilityabilities rather than party loyaltypersonalities rather than policiescapitalism and socialism
52A Dirty CampaignMa, Ma…where’s my pa? He’s going to the White House, ha… ha… ha…!
53Little Lost MugwumpBlaine in 1884 tried to play the role of reformer, and bring the Republican sheep to the ballot box, but…
54UGLY HONEST “Public Office is Public Trust” Heated and nasty election on the part of James G. Blaine’s Half Breed Republicans.“Ma, Ma, where’s Pa? Gone to Washington, Ha Ha Ha!!”Blaine Loses when he does not denounce the “Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion” speech. Enough NYC Irish vote democrat in responseAlso hurt by the “Burn this letter” scandal.Cleveland is elected by the Republican Mugwump reformers who vote Dem rather than corrupt Blaine.BUT NO REAL ISSUES
55Cleveland’s Events 1884-1888 Pres. Succession Act 1886 Interstate Commerce Act 1887Anti-Polygamy Law (Utah)Vetoed 413 “Pork Bills” in 4 years.“A Public office is a public TRUST”His laissez-faire presidency:Opposed bills to assist the poor as well as the rich.Vetoed over 200 special pension bills for Civil War veterans!
57The Tariff IssueAfter the Civil War, Congress raised tariffs to protect new US industries.Big business wanted to continue this; consumers did not.1885 tariffs earned the US $100 mil In surplus!Mugwumps opposed it WHY???President Cleveland’s view on tariffs????Tariffs became a major issue in the presidential election.
66Changing Public Opinion Americans wanted the federal govt. to deal with growing soc. & eco. problems & to curb the power of the trusts:Interstate Commerce Act – 1887Sherman Antitrust Act – 1890McKinley Tariff – 1890Based on the theory that prosperity flowed directly from protectionism.Increased already high rates another 4%!Rep. Party suffered big losses in 1890 (even McKinley lost his House seat!).
68HE CAME UP WITH THREE ANSWERS 12.3.SPENDSPENDSPEND
69IT IS HARRISON’S ADMINISTRATION THAT CREATES THE PANIC OF 1893 Mckinley Tariff Act 48.4% (1890). He had defeated Cleveland on the tariff issue—so he felt compelled to raise it to ridiculous heights.Backlash in 1890 puts Dem’s in charge of Congress again.1892 sees the rise of the Populist PartySherman Silver Purchase ActSherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)Dependent Pension Act (1890)Boomer SoonerClose and Near
70Political party loyalties of the late 1800s tended to remain stable because economic issues divided the electorate into well-organized opposing groupsvoting participation was low and political change slowonly one political party garnered any substantial supportvoting patterns were determined more by sharp cultural and ethnic differences rather than political issuesfew significant economic or social changes took place, and thus few political issues developed
71Populist PlatformUnlimited coinage of silver at 16:1to create inflation (to help western and southern debtors)Socialized RR’s, telegraph, and telephone (to help the West)A graduated income taxDirect election of Senators1 term limit on the PresidencyInitiative, Referendum and Recall10 hour work-day (trying to win labor vote)Immigration restrictions (trying to win labor vote)Use of strikes to attack unfair business practices.Southern alliance of poor black and white farmers (to win the South)
72Despite major gains in 1892… See map on p. 523 South returns to racism and hatred—last black voters were disenfranchised by Poll Taxes, Literacy Tests, etc.Homestead (Carnegie’s Steel factory) strike turns into a “riot” that has to broken by FEDERAL troops.Panic of guts American business. No patience for reform is left.
75HE INHERITS FROM HARRISON the Panic of 1893 with: CAN A NICE GUY BE ANEFFECTIVE PRESIDENT?HE INHERITS FROM HARRISON the Panic of 1893 with:High Inflation (partly due to silver)High unemploymentHigh MiseryBY THE END OF HIS 2nd TERM HE IS THE MOST DISLIKED PRESIDENT OF ALL TIMES.
76Cleveland Loses Support Fast! The only President to serve two non- consecutive terms.Blamed for the 1893 Panic.Defended the gold standard.Used federal troops in the Pullman strike.Repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.
77The Silver Issue“Crime of ’73” demonetization of silver (govt. stopped coining silver).Bland-Allison Act (1878) limited silver coinage to $2-$4 mil. per mo. (based on the 16:1 ratio of silver to gold).Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)The US Treasury must purchase $4.5 mil. oz. of silver a month.Govt. deposited most silver in the US Treasury rather than circulation.
78Cleveland’s ill-fated attempts to fix the problems Overspeculation in factories (addicted to growth during C.W.)Labor disorderAgricultural depressionToo much silver caused a drop in the dollar internationallyForeign bankers called in loansSound familiar?
79The biggest Problem U.S gov’t has to buy Silver with paper currency The seller then trades their new paper currency for GOLD.Happens every time the gov’t buys silver.The rule is the gov’t needs $100 million in gold to support $350 million in currency.By 1894 the gold reserve has dropped to $41 million because of #2.Therefore the gov’t should STOP producing paper $, but that will create a PANIC!!!!
80Cleveland’s SolutionHe borrows $65 million from banker (Republican) J.P. Morgan at a $7 million commission for the banker.Make’s Cleveland look like Morgan’s “errand boy”.Repeals the Sherman Silver Purchase ActReplaces the very high McKinley Tariff with the Wilson-Gorman Tariff, but “riders” to it make it just as highHe does get a temporary 2% tax on the wealthy, but the S.C. declares it unconstitutional
81BUT, ITS REALLY AT THE STATE/LOCAL LEVEL THAT THE WHEELING & DEALING OF POLITICSWAS DONE:
82POLITICAL MACHINES Politics as organized “Big Bidness” SOLD GOV’T SERVICES TO HIGHEST BIDDERSANDBAGGINGKICKBACKSBRIBERYSPOILS SYSTEM80% VOTER TURNOUTPOLITICS AS A CAREER.Politics as organized “Big Bidness”
83The urban political machine had all of the following goals except making money for the political bossproviding some of the services the new immigrants neededcreating jobs in city government for the supporters of the machinefinding jobs for the unemployedkeeping the Irish Catholics from gaining control of city government
105During the late 1800s, the most significant effect of the change in incomes upon society was that the income of the lower class dropped significantlythe middle class grew larger and more prosperousthe upper class showed little change in its wealth"real" wages dropped for everyone, despite a rise in "money" wagesthe upper class lost great amounts of wealth