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Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN 55102-1906 651.296.6125 Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Minnesota Architecture.

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Presentation on theme: "Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN 55102-1906 651.296.6125 Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Minnesota Architecture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Minnesota Architecture Learn more about Minnesotas architectural styles Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Early Architecture of Minnesota Faribault House, Faribault, 1853 Post Civil War Architecture Reads Landing School, Reads Landing, 1870 Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Detroit Lakes Library, Detroit Lakes, 1913 Bric-a-Brac Styles Taylor House, Le Sueur, 1890 Kitchi Gammi Club, Duluth, 1913 Vernacular Greek Revival Federal Gothic Revival Villas Italianate Style French Second Empire Simple Building Styles Richardsonian Style Stick Style Queen Anne & Eastlake Shingle Style Exotic Influences Neo-Classic Revival Renaissance Revival Medieval Revival Colonial/Georgian Revival American Foursquare Spanish Colonial Revival Prairie School Bungalow Art Deco International Revivals Internet Users: Click on any photo of a National Register (NR) property to learn more about it in the NR database. Restoration Materials Masonry Log Paint Siding Windows Wood

2 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Early Architecture of Minnesota Early Architecture of Minnesota Home Page Over the last 150 years, Minnesotas built environment has undergone a number of changes and several generations of buildings have come and gone. Early pioneer buildings have made way for more substantial structures, testifying to the stability The Vernacular Greek Revival Gothic Revival and permanence of the growing communities. A timeline of popular styles is often the best testimony of a communitys vitality, demonstrating its continuing growth and prosperity with popular architectural styles over time. It is common for a number of styles, representing different points on the timeline, to coexist. Over time, earlier styles tended to blend with later styles to create the harmonious individualism that gives older communities their character. Only in the mid- 20 th century did there appear to be a blatant disregard for the work of previous generations, brought on by several factors, including the abundance of mass-produced building products and the pressure for developable land in desirable localities. The old styles could not compete with the economic formulae of progress, and the image of older, growing communities changed overnight. Attitudes, however, also change, as evidenced by a new appreciation for old buildings. Preservation sensitivity and economic reality have renewed the value of architecture in our history. Products for the restoration of older buildings are now common-place in the building trade. Scarcity of older-quality materials encourages retention of practically everything for which a use might be found. Today the owners of older houses lovingly care for these venerable ancestors with hopes of passing them on to the next generation of stewards. Bric-a-Brac Styles Post Civil War Architecture Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Early Architecture of Minnesota First Congregational Church, Clearwater, 1861 Federal Style

3 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document The Vernacular Home Page Masonry Log Paint Restoration Materials It is important to realize that there are categories of buildings for which no academic designation of a style can be assigned. These buildings, often referred to as vernacular, include subsistence dwellings as well as industrial structures. Most of these buildings were modest and constructed of readily available local materials. Log buildings were common in forested areas. Stone buildings could be found along rivers with limestone and sandstone ledges. Sod houses were constructed on the prairie. Brick structures were erected in areas near clay pits where brick yards flourished. Sinclair Lewis House, Sauk Centre, 1885 With the advent of the railroad, materials could be more easily transported to remote areas, away from the local sources. The first construction to dot the landscape was of this nature, signifying the first phase of settlement. Many of these buildings exist today as the cores of older buildings or as utilitarian outbuildings. Early Architecture of Minnesota Bric-a-Brac Styles Post Civil War Architecture Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Seitaniemi Barn, St. Louis Cty, 1910 Siding Windows nrhp. mnhs. org/N RDeta ils.cfm ?NPS Num=

4 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Restoration Materials Wood Simplicity is a characteristic of the Federal Style, which dates from the 1780s in the eastern states. Many features incorporated in this style are found in the immediately preceding Georgian Style, such as small porticoes or door surrounds embellished with classical ornament, fanlight windows over doors and in gable pediments, and prominent window lintels.porticoes pedimentslintels The Federal Style is rigidly symmetrical in façade organization and massing; buildings in this style were often constructed of brick although frame construction was popular in Minnesota during the 1840s. By the late 1840s, the Federal Style was superceded by Greek Revival. Hanaford Farm, Monticello Twp., 1858 Federal Style Prominent examples of the Federal Style in Minnesota include: the Commanding Officers Quarters at Fort Snelling (1823), the John Baptiste Faribault House in Mendota (1838), and the Hanaford Farm in Monticello Township (1858). Masonry Paint Windows

5 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Greek Revival Home Page Restoration & Maintenance of Greek Revival The first popular architectural style in Minnesota was Greek Revival, built from about 1845 through the Civil War. Its prominence was made possible by the production of lumber in standard sizes, produced in water- powered sawmills that sprang up along the Saint Croix River and at the Falls of Saint Anthony. The invention of the steam-powered mill meant mills could be built closer to the timber resources. Although popular for all types of buildings, the majority of surviving Greek Revival buildings are residences, found mainly in the St. Croix, Mississippi, and Minnesota river areas, and throughout southeastern Minnesota. The buildings have three basic shapes: The broadside plan with a prominent central entry flanked by windows in a symmetrical pattern. The gable-end plan with an entry at one side, an odd number of bays, and a prominent gable facing the principle approach to the building. The L plan, created by an additional wing at right angles to the main body of the house. Greek Revival roofs are low-pitched gables without dormers and chimneys are slender, signifying that the primary heating sources were stoves rather than fireplaces. For the most part, Greek Revival residences are constructed of wood with clapboard siding and, in Minnesota, are painted white. Elements of Greek Revival Architecture Piper House, Medford- Clinton Falls Township, 1877 Ames/Florida House, Rockford, 1856 Early Architecture of Minnesota Bric-a-Brac Styles Post Civil War Architecture Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era

6 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Elements of Greek Revival Architecture General characteristics of Greek Revival include: corners defined by pilasters, often of the Greek Doric patternpilastersDoric heavy friezeboards, trim boards under the eaves at the cornice levelfriezeboardscornice full triangular pedimented gables similar to Greek temple trianglespedimented principal entries with sidelights and transoms six-over-six pane double-hung windows with thin muntin divisions.muntin Where a porch is present, the posts supporting the porch roofs are often in the form of classical columns. Clearly, Greek Revival houses are known for their simple refinement rather than for a profusion of ornament. Drawing with the major elements of Greek architecture Building in the Coon Grove School District showing a Greek Revival pediment Home Page Back to Greek Revival History Bric-a-Brac Styles Post Civil War Architecture Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Early Architecture of Minnesota

7 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Restoration & Maintenance of Greek Revival Architecture In a restoration project, the stylistic refinement or simple elegance of Greek Revival is of utmost importance in setting the quality control in the scope of work. The restorationist must consider the profile of the clapboard siding (siding with one board overlapping the other to shield the rain); the dimensions of the muntins in the windows; and the depth of the frieze or extension of the corner pilasters. muntins frieze pilasters Home Page Restoration Materials Back to Greek Revival History Inappropriate siding, new windows without true-divided panes, or metal combination storm/screen units can be disastrous to the aesthetic of the Greek Revival house. Removal of or colonializing the signature entrance entablature (the door surround or portal), is definitely to be avoided. Addition of details that have no relevance to the style or ornamentation from a later architectural period should also be avoided. For guidance, consult the Secretary of the Interiors Standards for Rehabilitation; copies are available from the State Historic Preservation Office. Greek Revival doorway, Cannon Falls, ca. 1860s Early Architecture of Minnesota Bric-a-Brac Styles Post Civil War Architecture Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Masonry Paint Wood Siding Windows

8 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Early Architecture of Minnesota Gothic Revival Home Page The Gothic Revival Style was profusely ornamented and complex. In Minnesota, Gothic Revival experienced three distinct phases, its popularity lasting well into the 20 th century. The three phases were Carpenter Gothic, Victorian Gothic and Late Gothic.Carpenter Gothic Victorian Gothic Late Gothic Restoration of Gothic Revival buildings presents a challenge for the craftsperson, as many of its Restoration Materials Bunnell House, Homer Twp, 1845 Le Duc House, Hastings, 1862 Church of Holy Communion, St. Peter, 1870 lost over the years and replacement materials are usually not available and often must be painstakingly reproduced by hand. Few intact examples remain to serve as patterns. Consequently, restoration is costly, distinguishing qualities are found in complex detailing and ornamentation. Delicate exterior ornament or curvilinear window tracery has often been curvilineartracery laborious and usually takes more time than anticipated. The finished product, however, is a rare and valuable testament to Minnesotas rich early architectural heritage. Bric-a-Brac Styles Post Civil War Architecture Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Masonry Paint Wood Siding Windows

9 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Early Architecture of Minnesota Carpenter Gothic Carpenter Gothic was popular from , a period also dominated by Greek Revival architecture. Like Greek Revival, Carpenter Gothic was promoted through books. Among its noted proponents was Andrew Jackson Downing, a horticulturist from New York, who expounded on the merits of the style and its affinity with nature in his book Country Houses*. Downing produced a number of designs in his book, which reached readers and builders throughout Minnesota. Back to Gothic Revival History Restoration Materials Home Page Trinity Episcopal Church, St. Charles, 1874 Bric-a-Brac Styles Post Civil War Architecture Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Masonry Paint Wood Siding Windows *Published in 1861, the full title of the book is The architecture of country houses; including designs for cottages, farm-houses, and villas, with remarks on interiors, furniture, and the best modes of warming and ventilating. With three hundred and twenty illustrations.

10 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Victorian Gothic Home Page Restoration Materials Back to Gothic Revival History contributed to its many-colored appearance.many-colored appearance Characteristics of Victorian Gothic include an irregular plan and massing, steep roofs, and construction of brick and cut stone in polychromatic patterns. Verticality was emphasized through a profusion of towers, high arches and gables. Ornamental treatment includes stained glass, arcades, flaring cornices and corbels, brackets, spires and finials. The complexity of the style contributed to its rather short-lived popularity.arcadescornices corbelsbracketsfinials During the 1870s and early 1880s, Gothic Revival experienced a resurgence known as Victorian Gothic. Its source of inspiration seems to have been John Ruskin, an English scholar who wrote extensively about the Gothic buildings of Venice in profusely illustrated books. The primary emphasis of Victorian Gothic was in commercial and public architecture rather than residences. These buildings were substantial and often constructed of brick and stone rather than wood. An elaborate mix of materials and ornamentation Winona Hotel, Winona, 1889 Gile House, Princeton, 1872 Early Architecture of Minnesota Bric-a-Brac Styles Post Civil War Architecture Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Masonry Paint Wood Windows

11 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Early Architecture of Minnesota Late Gothic Post Civil War Architecture Home Page Restoration Materials Wood Back to Gothic Revival History The popularity of Late Gothic followed the Columbian Exposition of It was promoted by architect Ralph Adams Cram who, with partner Bertram Goodhue, produced designs for prominent clients across the country. Having its roots in the architecture of Medieval Europe and England, it was a formal style taught in the architectural schools of the period. Its popularity continued until the end of World War II. Advanced technology allowed these buildings to achieve immense scale; because of this, it was widely used for churches and college campus buildings (hence a reference to it as Collegiate Gothic). Like the earlier phases of Gothic Revival, Late Gothic buildings are irregular in plan and tend to be multi-storied. They Butler Square, Minneapolis, 1906 Brooks House, Minneapolis, 1906 Holy Trinity Church, Rollingstone, 1893 Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Masonry Paint Wood Windows vaulted interiors. Early buildings were constructed of cut stone, but reinforced concrete was also widely used in the early 20th century. Its ornamental features include towers or spires, intricate window tracery, pointed arches, and a monochromatic color scheme.tracery have steeply pitched gable roofs and

12 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Post-Civil War Architecture: 1860s to 1890s Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Home Page After the Civil War, Minnesota witnessed a building boom. Population numbers exploded and many communities tripled in size. Pioneer settlement in eastern Minnesota was over. Rail lines were extended to the west, and by the end of the 1880s, virtually no burgeoning town was without a link to another. The era of the Greek and Gothic Revival styles came to an end, replaced by a more exuberant and substantial architecture indicative of affluence and permanence. These became known as the Bracketed Styles and the later part of the period as the Brownstone Era. Villa Italianate French Second Empire Simple Building Styles Richardsonian Simple Building Styles Italianate Villa Duluth Central High School, Duluth, 1892 Howes House, Hastings, 1868 Pratt-Taber House, Red Wing, 1875 East Union Parish House, East Union, 1856 Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era McKusick House, Stillwater, 1868 Chateauesque Duluth Union Depot, Duluth, 1892 French Second Empire Post-Civil War Architecture

13 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Villa Post Civil War Architecture Home Page The villa was introduced to the masses in Andrew Jackson Downings book, Country Houses* and was popular from 1860 through Loosely inspired by the romantic image of Italian country construction ranged from wood to brick and stone. The villa was exceptionally adaptable as both a country manor and an urban mansion. It was regarded as a statement of social correctness and respect and was an exceptionally popular choice by people of prominence. Villas commonly appeared in two forms: the cube and the *Published in 1861, the full title of the book is The architecture of country houses; including designs for cottages, farm-houses, and villas, with remarks on interiors, furniture, and the best modes of warming and ventilating. With three hundred and twenty illustrations. villas, its architectural signature was the rooftop cupola or corner tower, along with carved or scroll-sawn brackets, high windows with arched or flat hoods, elaborate porches or verandahs, low-pitched hipped or gable roofs with prominent chimneys, and classically inspired columns. Common materials forscroll-sawn bracketshoodshipped L. The cube was a basically simple two- or three-story mass expanded with the addition of bay windows and service wings. Porches could be found at the front, or in some cases, extended to encircle the cube. more Eckert House, Hastings, 1850 Early Architecture of Minnesota Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Rahilly House Entry, Mount Pleasant Twp, 1880 Restoration or Maintenance of Villa or Italianate Architecture

14 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Villa (continued) Post Civil War Architecture Home Page With the L, a prominent tower was placed at the intersection of two sections of the building; it often served the function of entry and stair tower. In later years, in response to changing architectural taste and an attitude against unnecessary maintenance of frivolities, many villas lost their cupolas or towers. Devoid of this feature, the Villa style is difficult to distinguish from its contemporary, and successor, the Italianate style.. Cupola of the Cameron House, La Crescent, 1871 Rahilly House, Mount Pleasant Twp, 1880 back to previous page Early Architecture of Minnesota Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Huff-Lamberton House, Winona, 1873 Restoration or Maintenance of Villa or Italianate Architecture hp.mnhs.org/NR Details.c fm?NPS Num=

15 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document French Second Empire: The Mansard Style Home Page Post Civil War Architecture The French Second Empire Style is often called the Mansard Style in recognition of its most prominent characteristic, the mansard roof. incorporating a full story within what normally would be considered attic space. The lower face of the roof is nearly vertical and is most often fitted with dormer windows. It is commonly faced with patterned slate or wooden shingles to produce a decorative effect. The upper pitch is very low and nearly obscured from view, due to the height of the lower face and the use of a cornice or curb. cornice curb Developed in France during the reign of Napoleon III in the 1850s, the style was used for a major remodeling of the Louvre in Paris. It became popular in America immediately after the Civil War and continued to make its mark on residential and public architecture for nearly 20 years. It earned the nickname U.S. Grant style after the Old Executive Office Building in Washington, D.C. was built in this style during the presidency of Ulysses S. Grant. The mansard roof is composed of a double-pitched structural system, An ornamental treatment of the curb is created with a filigree iron cresting, similar to a small fence. It was also common to incorporate a tower (with mansard roof) on public buildings and prominent residences. With the exception of the roof, the French Empire style is similar to the Italianate style.cresting Restoration Materials Majerus House, St. Cloud, 1891 Early Architecture of Minnesota Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Ramsey House, St. Paul, 1868 Masonry Paint Wood Windows

16 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Simple Building Styles Home Page Post Civil War Architecture Early Architecture of Minnesota Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era The 1870s saw the introduction of two simple building types: the L or T house and the Mechanics Cottage. Both of these buildings have been often classified as vernacular in recognition of their relatively simple construction and appearance as well as popularity. They generally lack ornamentation particular to any style, and when ornamentation is employed, it is of the mass-produced catalogue variety.L or T house Mechanics Cottage Restoration Materials Log Masonry Paint Wood Siding Windows Mechanics Cottages, Winona, ca 1870s (now torn down)

17 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document The L or T House Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Restoration Materials The L or T house design is common in rural areas throughout the Midwest and is not unique to Minnesota. It is often considered the predecessor of the American Four-Square or Corn Belt Cube of the early 20th century. The structure often began as a subsistence dwelling. As the owner prospered, a more impressive story-and-a-half addition would be constructed at right angles to the initial structure, resulting in the characteristic L or T shape. The addition often contained bedrooms on the second floor and a parlor/sitting room on the first floor. The original structure was adapted to serve as kitchen and dining space. In many early examples of this building type, the difference in the construction of the two elements is reflected in a slight difference of materials and craftsmanship. (For example, the original section may be constructed of logs while the addition is constructed of dimension timber.) In later years, it was common to construct the entire structure at one time, although the proportions remained essentially the same as earlier examples. Heck House, Chanhassen, 1895 Back to Simple Building Styles History Log Masonry Paint Wood Siding Windows

18 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Mechanics Cottage Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Restoration Materials Back to Simple Building Styles History The Mechanics Cottage was a vernacular urban predecessor of the Bungalow style. It was a simple house to satisfy the needs of small working-class families. It was hastily constructed on a narrow city lot, using a standard plan and mass- produced materials. Mechanics cottages commonly were erected in rows or groups in subdivisions called rearrangements to accommodate concentrations of buildings. Each cottage was identical to its neighbor. Due to the haste and relatively low quality of construction, few Mechanics Cottages survive, and very few survive in their original groups. Milwaukee Avenue in Minneapolis, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, is a rare example of an original row of Mechanics Cottages. Milwaukee Avenue Historic District, Minneapolis, 1883 Log Masonry Paint Wood Siding Windows Mechanics Cottage, St. Cloud, ca 1880s

19 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Italianate Home Page Post Civil War Architecture With the exception of the cupola or tower, the Italianate style incorporates the same ornamental characteristics as the Villa style, though in greater abundance. The Italianate style was considered a trademark of popular commercial architecture during the late 19 th century. Storefronts employed cast-iron columns with classical ornamentation and great expanses of glass in display windows. Upper floors were graced with tall, arched windows with stone or metal hoods. The facade was crowned by an elaborate cornice, made of wood or pressed metal. Within the cornice were brackets, decorative panels, and an area for the owners name and/or date. Virtually all commercial districts during the second half of the 19th century had a proliferation of Italianate storefronts. hoodscornice Window of Exchange Bank Building, Farmington, 1880 Nicollet Hotel, St. Peter, 1873 Restoration & Maintenance of Villa or Italianate Architecture Early Architecture of Minnesota Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era The Italianate Style was extremely popular for both residential and commercial buildings, and remained so until the early 1890s. In contrast to the villa, the Italianate building was readily adaptable to an urban setting with narrow street frontages. Ornamentation was concentrated on the principal elevation, resulting in an elaborate, and sometimes flamboyant appearance. It was common to employ ornamental details such as brackets and columns in pairs. Low-hipped roofs with broad eaves emphasized the massing of the building below. brackets Low-hipped roofs

20 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Post Civil War Architecture Restoration & Maintenance of Villa or Italianate Architecture Academic Revival Styles Home Page Back to Italianate History When undertaking the restoration of a Villa or Italianate building, the critical factor is the proper use of ornament; it is easy to over ornament such a building. In addition to an understanding of high style versus local style, the key to placement is symmetry and balance. Many pre-formed decorative elements were mass-produced and obtained through catalogues. These range from simple to extremely elaborate. Some elements were fabricated on site by local builders to create an appearance of the popular image of the style. Research into the time and place, availability of materials, proficiency of craftsmen, and the economic conditions is essential to proper restoration of either a Villa or Italianate style building. Restoration Materials Exchange Bank Building, Farmington, 1880 Early Architecture of Minnesota Bric-a-Brac Styles Styles of the Modern Era Masonry Paint Wood Windows Drawing for Parsons Block & Hall, Spring Valley, 1871 Back to Villa History

21 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Richardsonian Home Page Post Civil War Architecture Early Architecture of Minnesota Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era This period is widely known as the Brownstone Era, but the term is misleading in the context of Minnesota architecture. Virtually no brownstone is found in Minnesota. The term has been commonly taken to refer to any rock-faced masonry building--whether of limestone, sandstone, quartzite or granite-- popular during the 1880s and 1890s. They were usually large buildings and included mansions, churches, courthouses and public buildings. If any generalization can be made, it is that the style and medium were not adaptable to small-scale buildings. Universally recognized as the founder of the Brownstone Era, Henry Hobson Richardson was an architect with a deep interest in the Roman- esque architecture of Medieval Europe. Through his creative genius, Romanesque motifs were given new interpretation in a distinctive style, which architectural historians label Richardsonian or Richardsonian Romanesque. Architects of the day cultivated the enthusiasm of the public to embrace the Richardsonian and the style became fashionable almost overnight. more Kanabec County Courthouse, Mora, 1894 Faribault County Courthouse, Blue Earth, 1891 Restoration & Maintenance of Richardsonian Masonry Restoration Materials Paint Wood Windows

22 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Richardsonian (continued) Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page elaborate carvings, polychromatic panels, towers, and steeply pitched slate or tile-clad roofs. Bands of windows were often divided by clusters of small pilasters called colonettes. Interiors werepilasters have been converted into multi-family residences or institutions. Few remain as originally designed for single-family occupancy. Public buildings such as schools and seats of government have met similar fates. A number of Richardsonian courthouses survive in Minnesota, but they have been extensively altered by additions and remodeling. All but a handful of multi-story Richardsonian urban buildings were demolished to make way for the urban renewal projects of the 1960s. back to previous page Restoration & Maintenance of Richardsonian Masonry Restoration Materials Characteristics of the style include massiveness, rusticated or rock- face masonry, low semi-circular arches (often called Syrian arches), Duluth Central High School, Duluth, 1892 remarkable for their intricate detailing, fine materials and decorative opulence. Due to their scale and cost of maintenance, many Richardsonian mansions have been lost. A number Paint Of the once-prolific style, only churches have fared well. Well-constructed and located within residential neighborhoods, most continue to serve their congregations to this day. Wood Windows

23 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry in Richardsonian Buildings Restoration Materials Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Back to Richardsonian History The significance and relative rarity of Richardsonian buildings today is justification for compre- hensive and ongoing programs of restoration and stewardship. Common problems are the effects of weathering on the stone walls, mortar joints, and the extremely susceptible carved ornamentation that embellishes them.mortar Although some Minnesota Richardsonian buildings were constructed of granite or pink jasper (Sioux quartzite), most were constructed of limestone and/or sandstone. Both of the latter are exceptionally vulnerable to moisture and erosion, which eventually deteriorates entire faces of stone blocks or elements, allowing moisture to enter the walls and cause the stones to spall.spall Of paramount concern is keeping the roof and parapets water-tight and the mortar joints sound. It is important that the mortar used in the joints is soft to allow the stones to expand and contract with changes in temperature. parapets Avoid application of water-repellant coatings, which seal in the moisture; freezing tempera- tures will turn the moisture into ice and crack the stone. Ongoing research into modern techniques for stone conservation includes testing of stone consolidants to retard erosion and solidify weakened stone. Many of these techniques are in their experimental stages and must be adapted for specific climatic conditions and stone types.water-repellant coatings The best counsel in the matter of stone buildings is to obtain the services of a professional masonry contractor and to avoid any processes that are not time-proven and reversible. Smith House, Minneapolis, 1887 Paint Wood Windows More on Masonry

24 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Chateauesque Contemporary and often confused with the Richardsonian style, the Chateauesque style is actually a high Victorian mixture of Renaissance and Late Gothic details found in the architecture of France during the early 16th century. Buildings in this style are of masonry construction, have asymmetrical plans and massing with high, steep-pitch roofs, often crowned by ornamental cresting or finials.cresting finials Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Restoration Materials Duluth Union Depot, Duluth, 1892 Masonry Paint Munger Terrace, Duluth, 1891 Round towers or tourelles with candle- snuffer roofs are distinctive features. Roof dormers commonly spring from the walls and are capped with stone copings. In some examples of the Chateauesque style, elaborate window hoods are often in the shape of a basket-handle arch. Minnesota has few examples of the Chateauesque style; noteworthy are the Swan Turnblad House in Minneapolis, the Old Federalhoods Courts Building in Saint Paul, and the Union Depot and Munger Terrace, both in Duluth. Wood Windows

25 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Bric-a-Brac Styles Home Page Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era The years following the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia were marked by a change in architectural tastes. Italianate and French Second Empire styles gave way to a more picturesque, and at times exotic, expression emphasizing highly ornamental design.exotic The styles that rose to popularity during the next 20 years, the Queen Anne, Eastlake, Shingle and Stick styles, were labeled romantic, bric- a-brac, and free-classic.Queen Anne, EastlakeShingle Stick This was because of their exuberance and their unprecedented non-traditional profusion of design features, extracted and interpreted from a wide variety of sources, including the English cottage, the Moorish mosque, and the classical temple. They were translated into three-dimensional architecture by the creativity and technology-based ingenuity of the architect/artist/craftsman of the day. Paradoxically, the standardization produced by the machine and its ability to create seemingly countless variations, resulted in highly individualized buildings. This characteristic is Exposition might now be called media events, because they brought new ideas and technological advancements to a wide audience. Exposition visitors translated their experiences into expressions of tasteful design, mixing other cultures, architectural styles and decor with common, middleclass living. The result set the stage for an era of architects and authors as taste-makers. The Bric-a-Brac styles epitomize the American Dream. Restoration & Maintenance of Bric-a-Brac Materials Comstock House, Moorhead, 1883 obvious when two seemingly identical houses were constructed next to each other. Events such as the Centennial

26 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Bric-a-Brac Materials Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Since ornamentation is integral to bric-a-brac style buildings, retention, restoration or replacement of this feature poses the greatest preservation challenge. Changes in taste and the effects of harsh climate have contributed to the demise of these fragile buildings, along with the cost of appropriate replacement materials and availability of original technology. In recent years, a renewed interest in Victoriana has spurred a number of manufacturers, suppliers and craftspeople to focus on the restoration of late 19th-century buildings. As a result, virtually everything in the way of design elements from the last century is again available. It is difficult for the amateur restorer to resist the lure of the popular market, which tends to embellish beyond the original design. Before undertaking a project, one must become thoroughly acquainted with the time, tastes, and social and economic circumstances in which the building was erected. Only then can the project be put into perspective and sound judgments made. A good rule is: Resist the temptation to create a historical image that never existed. Interior of Osbeck House, Lake Benton, 1896 Krabbenhoft Farmstead, Elmwood Twp, 1890 Paint Wood Siding Windows Restoration Materials Back to Bric-a-Brac History

27 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Exotic Influences Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page One influence on late 19th-century architecture that can be traced to the Centennial Exposition was a taste for the exotic, in particular Middle Eastern and Oriental motifs. New buildings were designed to incorporate such features, while older ones were remodeled in response to fashion. Popular motifs included metal onion-like domes, spiral-turned posts, keyhole arches, vivid colored stained glass, and pagoda- like roofs. For the most part, the exotic influence was felt in matters of decorative arts and interior design such as wallpaper, furnishings and treatments. Those instances where the exotic was expressed in the exterior were considered outdated within a few years after the turn of the century. Fortunately, a few examples of this period remain, such as the Bardwell-Ferrant house at 2500 Portland Ave. in Minneapolis, constructed as a simple Queen Anne residence in 1883 and transformed into a Moorish fantasy by architect Carl F. Struck in Lakewood Cemetery Chapel, Minneapolis, 1908 Restoration & Maintenance of Bric-a-Brac Materials Huff-Lamberton House, Winona, 1873

28 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Queen Anne & Eastlake Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Restoration & Maintenance of Bric-a-Brac Materials The Queen Anne and Eastlake styles were popular in Minnesota from the early 1880s to the turn of the century. The two styles are similar in massing and picturesque quality and differ primarily in type of ornamentation. A Queen Anne building is noted for its use of curvilinear, slender profile forms; the Eastlake is noted for its geometric, more massive forms.curvilinear The Queen Anne style was developed by English architect Richard Norman Shaw to be reminiscent of the medieval cottage or manor house. Ironically, its acceptance in America was based on the fact that it iation with their own colonial past. The earliest American Queen Anne buildings were strongly reminiscent of Dutch colonial houses, though more abstract and ornamental. By the 1880s, any design that evoked nostalgia for the past was loosely labeled Queen Anne. more Gag House, New Ulm, 1898 click here for photo of replacement siding being removed from Gag House. Osbeck House, Lake Benton, 1896 Coe House, Minneapolis, 1884 A similar analogy may be made for the Eastlake style. Although it had roots in the earlier Gothic style, Eastlake was so named for its association with English architect Charles Locke Eastlake. It made its debut in his book Hints on Household Taste (1868). stirred in Americans an assoc-

29 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Queen Anne & Eastlake (continued) Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Restoration & Maintenance of Bric-a-Brac Materials The popularity of both the Queen Anne and Eastlake styles was the result of pattern books. Common characteristics of Queen Anne and Eastlake styles are: irregularity in plan, volume and shape; a variety of surface textures; roof and wall projections; steep roofs with multiple or intersecting gables; bay windows, towers, wrap-around porches; and tall chimneys with intricate caps. Architect Henry Hudson Holly said that the Queen AnneHenry Hudson Holly ornamentation makes the Queen Anne an ideal candidate for polychromatic color schemes.polychromatic color schemes Eastlake ornamentation is more geometric, the product of the scroll-saw rather than the lathe. Although turned, these elements are decidedlyscroll-sawlathe as the standard design for commercial architecture. For the most part, these buildings were constructed of brick and had tall, rectangular or segmentally arched windows, parapets embellished with corbels or dentils, decorative inset panels of patterned brick or terra cotta, and on occasion, false gables or corner towers with prominent roofs. Examples survive throughout the state. parapets corbels back to previous page Muench House, St. Paul, 1884 was the natural building style for America. It often uses patterned shingles in gable areas, towers and bays. Porches have classically inspired columns and spindlework railings; eaves are decorated with dentils and brackets. Windows are tall with large panes of glass, often stained glass. The complexity and placement ofdentils brackets massivein stark contrast to the Queen Anne. Eastlake towers are often square and capped by pyramidal roofs rather than the conical Queen Anne roofs. Colors are more subdued, similar to those found in Victorian Gothic buildings. Between 1885 and 1900, the Queen Anne style superseded the Italianate

30 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Architect/Author Henry Hudson Holly Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page In Henry Hudson Hollys article in Harpers of May 1876, he makes the following argument for the Queen Anne style: In what is loosely called the Queen Anne style we find the most simple mode of honest English building, worked out in an artistic and natural form, fitted with the sash windows and ordinary doorways, which express real domestic needs, and so in our house-building, conserving truth in design far more effectively than can be done with the Gothic. One great practical advantage in adopting this and other styles of the free-classic school is that, in their construction and in the forms of the mouldings employed, they are the same as the common vernacular styles with which our workmen are familiar. Nevertheless, they are very genuine and striking buildings, which are certainly some of the most beautiful and suitable specimens of modern cottage architecture in England and exemplified by the cottages erected by the British government on the Centennial grounds at Philadelphia. back to text Bennett-McBride House, Minneapolis, ca 1892

31 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Shingle Style Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Restoration & Maintenance of Bric-a-Brac Materials The Shingle style is decidedly modern and uncluttered. Made popular by the Centennial Exposition and architects like Henry Hobson Richardson and the firm of McKim, Mead and White, its pure form is distilled from the exuberant Queen Anne and Stick styles. While it mimics these styles in its irregular plan with complex roof lines and chimneys, the Shingle styles distinguishing feature is its skin of shingles. The use of shingles creates patterns, textures and a play of light and shadow signifying an integral, rather than applied, ornamentation. The result is a. refined composition that exhibits a quality of timelessness, helping the Shingle style to remain popular today. Its strong association with colonial architecture is due to its early popularity in large, New England seaside cottages and country estates. In Minnesota, the Shingle style was introduced (some say by architect Cass Gilbert) in the early 1880s and remained in fashion through the turn of the century. While rarely sheathed entirely in shingles, the Minnesota version of the style includes prominent shingling on the upper exterior wall with lower stories either masonry or wooden clapboard. It also includes window sashes divided into small panes; massive chimneys; irregular hip, gambrel or gable roofs (usually lower in pitch than the Queen Anne); dormers; and broad roof lines, which often extend over open, sweeping porches or verandahs to create a feeling of penetration into the interior space.hipgambrel Lovell House, Chatfield, 1896 Schneider House, St. Paul, 1890

32 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Stick Style Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Restoration & Maintenance of Bric-a-Brac Materials Picturesque styles, like the Stick style, are the result of the transition from builders guides to pattern books. Builders guides often pattern books; by the mid 1860s it was fashionable, thanks in part to the popular New Jersey Building at the Centennial Exposition. Stick style buildings are disproportionately tall, with steeply pitched roofs. With a profusion of gables and porches, they form a complex and irregular massing and silhouette. In Minnesota, where lumber is readily available, Stick style buildings are mainly of frame construction. The frame is sheathed with clapboards and overlaid with horizontal, vertical or diagonal boards that divide the wall surface into panels. Eaves at the roof lines project considerably and are usually supported by large brackets which, with the stick work, sometimes give the building the appearance of a Swiss chalet. An open porch or verandah is common; roofs are supported by posts (rather than columns) with diagonal braces. Polychromatic paint schemes are employed to enhance the stick work patterns.brackets Polychromatic paint schemes Noyes Cottage, White Bear Lake, 1879 contained only plates of classical orders and structural details; pattern books included plans and designs for houses and out-buildings. In this way, the Stick style is loosely based on the English Elizabethan half- timber cottage, popularized in illustrated books. Andrew Jackson Downing had hinted at the Stick style in his pattern book Country Houses*. Its primary characteristic is exposed stick work, more often applied than structural in nature. Proliferation of the Stick style was due largely to *Published in 1861, the full title of the book is The architecture of country houses; including designs for cottages, farm-houses, and villas, with remarks on interiors, furniture, and the best modes of warming and ventilating. With three hundred and twenty illustrations.

33 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document The Academic Revival Styles Academic Revival Styles Home Page Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Styles of the Modern Era According to many historians, the Worlds Columbian Exposition of 1893 heralded the end of the Victorian era. Held in Chicago, the Exposition brought together the talents of architects from across the country to create the White City, hundreds of acres of exposition halls, pavilions, sculpture gardens and promenadesall linked by a man-made canal system. As was the case with the Centennial Exposition 17 years earlier, the Columbian Expositions promoters regarded it as an event that would popularize the cutting edge of taste and design. When the scale, expense and impact of the Columbian Exposition are considered in comparison with previous--as well as later-- expositions or fairs, it may be seen to have had the greatest impact on society. The architectural styles that rose to popularity as a result of the Columbian Exposition include the following: Restoration & Maintenance of Academic Revival Style Materials Neo-Classic Revival Medieval Revival Renaissance Revival Colonial/Georgian Revival American Foursquare Spanish Colonial Revival Church of St. Mary, New Trier, 1909 more Egyptian Revival Carpenter House, Minneapolis, 1906 Academic Revival Styles

34 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document The Academic Revival Styles (continued) Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Restoration & Maintenance of Academic Revival Style Materials The Neo-Classic RevivalNeo-Classic Revival The Medieval RevivalMedieval Revival The Renaissance RevivalRenaissance Revival The Colonial/Georgian RevivalColonial/Georgian Revival The American FoursquareAmerican Foursquare The Spanish Colonial RevivalSpanish Colonial Revival The theme of the Exposition originated in the École Des Beaux Arts in Paris, the worlds leading school of architecture. The Écoles curriculum was founded on the art and architecture of Classical Greece and Rome and of the Renaissance in Italy and Europe. The École mandated recording from life as a necessary part of each students education, and aspiring architects ventured throughout Europe and contemporary building designs. Hence, the resulting styles came to be called Academic Revivals. They remained popular through the 1930s until World War II. With the discovery of antiquities in Egypt, the Egyptian Revival style also became popular during the 1870s and 1890s. Because it was not a focus of the École Des Beaux Arts or featured at the Exposition, however, it is not strictly academic. Egyptian Revival back to previous page Stearns County Courthouse, St. Cloud, 1921 Bovey Village Hall, Bovey, 1934 Britain to fill sketch books with details from antiquity. With the aid of modern technology and materials, these details were translated into

35 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Academic Revival Materials Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Due to the recent popularity of the Academic Revival styles, materials and treatments are familiar to many in the building trades. Information on construction and decoration is available at libraries and bookstores. Reproduction parts, from leaded Windows casement windows to cast stone fireplace mantels, are again on the market, manufactured by companies across the country. Suppliers and craftspeople can be found on the Internet. Since much of the design and ornament in Academic Revival styles are integral, their survival rate is high. Elements such as balustrades, column capitals and roof treatments are most vulnerable balustradescapitals to weathering and deterioration but because high-quality materials were used to make them, their lifespan can be extended indefinitely with periodic maintenance. When replacement is necessary, the key is to acquire identical substitutes for the originals and take sufficient time in preparation and installation. Preparation may require back- priming or moisture-proofing; replacement of flashings, crowns and coves; and also modern technology repairs, such as epoxy consolidation of rotted window stiles or column cases. The repair may require a sympathetic introduction of energy conservation measures, such as weather-stripping or storms and screens to preserve historic window sashes. Understand the building before working on it. From that point on, its Academic. flashingscrowns stiles energy conservation measuressashes Ochs House, Springfield, 1911 Dome of Stearns County Courthouse, St. Cloud, 1921 Masonry Paint Wood Siding Restoration Materials

36 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Neo-Classic Revival Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Restoration & Maintenance of Academic Revival Style Materials Based on the architecture of Greece and Rome, the Neo- Classic Revival style is noted for its monumental scale, colonnaded porticoes and classical ornament used in public buildings and residences alike. The Beaux Artscolonnaded porticoes cornices cornices adorned with dentils or modillions. Pediments may be embellished with sculptural elements such as figures, garlands and swags, or medallions. Neo-Classic public buildings are usually masonry, veneered with a polished or bush-hammered stone.dentils modillionsgarlands and swags movements influence is evident in the use of sculptures as an integral building element. Buildings are usually rectangular; wings if used, are most often symmetrically positioned to accent the central building mass. Symmetry in the façades design and its components is critical. When classical borders are used, they are usually Doric, Ionic and Corinthian orders, often two or more stories high.DoricIonic Corinthian The portico roofs are usually gabled and have prominent pediments orpediments The most elaborate of the Neo- Classic Revival buildings are labeled Beaux Arts Classic. Ornamentation is extremely important and often includes a raised portico with a formal entry, monumental staircases, paired columns, domes, and statuary. Corners are accentuated by slightly projecting rectangular stones called quoins. There are semi- circular forms in window and door openings, loggias with arcades, and vaulted ceilings. Minnesotas state capitol, begun in 1895, is a premier example of Beaux Art Classicism. loggias arcades Owatonna Public Library, Owatonna, 1900 Buck House, Faribault, 1895

37 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Medieval Revival Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Restoration & Maintenance of Academic Revival Style Materials The Medieval Revival drew its inspiration from the architecture of Elizabethan and Jacobean England and from northern Europe during the Pre-Renaissance period ( ). As with many academic styles, elements from various eras or building types were often merged within a single building. Architectural historian Marcus Whiffen labels the result Jacobethan. These buildings are characterized by irregular plans, high-pitched roofs and a combination of brick and stucco walls. Mock half-timber detailing is often employed in upper stories and gables. Roofs are prominent features, either gabled or a combination of gables, hips and jerkins. It is common for a roof to sweep from the uppermost gable to the first floor, incorporating a catenary curve. Chimneys are massive and ornamental, often with patterned brick or stonework and ceramic chimney pots. Windows are either double-hung or casement, and they have small panes of glass set either in wooden muntins or lead cames.hips jerkinscatenary curvemuntins cames Plummer House, Rochester, 1917 Ward House, Alexandria, 1903

38 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Renaissance Revival Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Restoration & Maintenance of Academic Revival Style Materials The Renaissance Revival is inspired by the Italian Renaissance palazzo ( ). Although the style is usually associated with large-scale buildings such as libraries, city halls, hotels, offices and museums, many wealthy individuals chose the style for their urban palaces. The plan and massing of Renaissance Revival buildings are usually rectangular. Facades are arranged symmetrically, and the roof is either flat or a low hip, concealed by a balustrade or parapet. An elaborate bracketed cornice defines the transition between the facade and roof.low hip balustrade parapet bracketed cornice Ornamental treatments include classical columns and pilasters, arched windows and entries, corner quoins, prominent window surrounds, and urn-shaped balusters. They are usually constructed of masonry with facades sheathed in brick, stone or stucco, or combinations of these.pilastersquoinsbalusters Red Wing City Hall, Red Wing, 1905 Blue Earth County Courthouse, Mankato, 1886 (postcard) Semple House, Minneapolis, 1901

39 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Colonial/Georgian Revival Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Restoration & Maintenance of Academic Revival Style Materials The Colonial/Georgian Revival recognized an American architectural heritage. It focused on the building styles from the mid-1600s through the mid-1700s, found in New England, Virginia and Pennsylvania. The simpler designs were called Colonial and were reminiscent of earlier clapboard structures with small windows, large chimneys, sparse ornament, and wooden clapboard or shingles to create a rustic charm. The Georgian was refined in its classical proportion and use of ornament and building materials (brick or a combination of brick and wood). Promoted in pattern books as truly American architecture, it was adaptable to a broad range of costs and lifestyles, from small city lots to expansive country estates. It remained popular for nearly 40 years and experienced another revival in the 1990s. General characteristics include a rectangular plan, often with wings of smaller rectangles, and a two- or three-story massing. Roofs may be gabled, hipped or gambrel, often with narrow, pedimented dormers. Windows are typically multi-pane and double-hung. The principal facades are symmetrically arranged into an odd number of bays with emphasis on a formal central entry, sometimes embellished with a fanlight transom and sidelights.hipped gambrelpedimented double-hung Ornamental treatments include small porticoes, shutters, Palladian windows, eave brackets or modillions, and classical columns and pilasters. Mass-produced, they are available from millwork catalogues. porticoesPalladian windows brackets modillionspilasters Anoka Post Office, Anoka, 1916

40 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document American Foursquare Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Restoration & Maintenance of Academic Revival Style Materials Based on farmhouse architecture of the Midwest, the American Foursquare can be classified under several styles, according to its use of ornament. The American Foursquare, or Cornbelt Cube, is typically square in plan, two stories in height, and has a prominent dormered hip roof and a full front porch. The facade arrangement iship Erikson Farmstead, Athens Twp, 1915 Bickle House, Glenwood, 1936 not necessarily symmetrical, but the overall composition is one of order. When classical columns are employed on the porch and on the corner pilasters, the Foursquare becomes Neo-Classic; when Gothic- inspired bargeboards are found on dormers and polygonal columns with foliate capitals are used on porches, the Foursquare becomes Medieval Revival; and when a Palladian window graces the façade, the Foursquare becomes Georgian Revival. In its simplest form it is, however, a Foursquare.pilasters Neo-Classic bargeboards foliate capitals Medieval RevivalPalladian window Georgian Revival

41 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Spanish Colonial Revival Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Restoration & Maintenance of Academic Revival Style Materials While the Colonial/Georgian Revival was popular in the East and Midwest, a revival of historic American architecture began in the Southwest. It found its roots in the adobe buildings of the Spanish Colonial period ( 1700s and early 1800s). The rise of the style coincided with the golden age of Hollywood and was preferred by the wealthy jet set of the time, so it was nicknamed Hollywood Modern. Its characteristics include irregular plans, one or two stories capped with low, flat or hipped roofs,hipped and construction of concrete or wood sheathed with stucco to resemble adobe. Details included terra cotta door and window surrounds resembling carved stone, projecting beams and rafters called vigas, wrought-iron grillwork, flat or arched recessed openings, and red tile roofs. Even when translated into stucco-clad buildings with flat or low-hipped tile roofs, Spanish Colonial Revival seemed out of place in Minnesotas harsh northern climate and found only limited popularity here.low-hipped Few full-blown examples of the style exist in Minnesota, though a number of buildings constructed during the late 1920s incorporate elements of Southwestern inspiration. Barnard Mortuary, Fergus Falls, 1930 Bailey House, Virginia, 1921

42 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Egyptian Revival Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Restoration & Maintenance of Academic Revival Style Materials the heightened interest in the discovery of antiquities in Egypt. The first Egyptian Revival in America dates from 1830 to 1850, with short periods in the 1870s and 1890s. At the beginning of the 20th century, Egyptian motifs were often found in works of the Arts and Crafts (or Aesthetic) movement in both architecture and the decorative arts. Winona Savings Bank, Winona, 1916 First State Bank, St. Joseph, 1918 Although often considered part of the exotic movement in architecture, the Egyptian Revival actually rose to popularity in the early years of the 19th century, with The Egyptian Revival reached a high point of popularity with the discovery of Tutankhamens tomb in the early 1920s. Features that distinguish the Egyptian Revival are the pylon, or battered wall, rolled concave cornices, window openings that narrow upward, columns with a pronounced bulge at the center, bundled columns, and the winged sun-disk symbol. cornices

43 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Prairie School Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Early Architecture of Minnesota Academic Revival Styles horizontal bands of masonry and windows. The anchor of the house was a massive central chimney, symbolizing a tree trunk, from which the rooms spread like branches in a rectangular or geometric pattern. The Prairie School (or Prairie Style) gained popularity and a number of architects hopped on the bandwagon. Among them were William Gray Purcell and George Grant Elmslie, who had been chief draftsman for Wrights mentor, Louis Sullivan. They attained national fame particularly for a series of Midwestern banks that were inspired by Sullivans Farmers National Bank in Owatonna. Minnesota has a significant number of Prairie School designs, ranging from residences to Bungalow Art Deco or Moderne International Style Modern Revivals Styles of the Modern Era libraries, though not all were designed by Purcell and Elmslie. Modern architecture as we know it began shortly after the beginning of the 20th century with innovations in residential design by architect Frank Lloyd Wright. These designs became known as the Prairie School, an approach which integrated the building and its surroundings.Frank Lloyd Wright Unlike towering Victorian structures, Prairie School buildings hugged the ground with broad expanses of hipped roofs, spreading eaves and hipped Purcell/Cutts House, Minneapolis, 1913 more Goodnow Cottage, Hutchinson, 1913 Prairie School Restoration Materials Sullivanesque Masonry Paint Wood Siding Windows

44 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Prairie School (continued) Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Styles of the Modern Era Bungalow Art Deco or Moderne International Style Modern Revivals The styles popularity began to wane after World War I. Some architectural scholars contend that the 1950s rambler is a Prairie School resurgence in a simpler, mass-produced guise. and visually with each other. Exteriors are constructed of wood or brick, often with upper areas or entire walls sheathed with stucco. The stucco often was pigmented or painted a tan or light pink to blend with the exposed wooden trim, which could either be stained or left in its natural state to weather. Much of the wooden trim found in these buildings was painted at a later time, which has detracted from its intended natural quality. When ornamental treatments are employed, they include horizontal wood trimboards or banding and horizontal groupings of casement windows in geometrictrimboards banding combinations of leaded and stained glass. A distinctive treatment of brick may also be used by recessing horizontal joints to give them a horizontal shadow line and using a pigmented mortar to finish vertical joints so they were flush with the surface. Hoyt House, Red Wing, 1913 back to previous page Prairie School Restoration Materials Sullivanesque Interior of Purcell/Cutts House, Minneapolis, 1913 Masonry Paint Wood Siding Windows Prairie School design emphasizes the horizontal and residences are seldom more than two stories. The interior of the building is remarkable for its open plan with a variety of spaces interacting physically

45 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Styles of the Modern Era Prairie School Bungalow Sullivanesque Art Deco or Moderne International Style Modern Revivals Restoration Materials Willey House, Minneapolis, 1934 Wrights Later Work Frank Lloyd Wrights work between 1935 and his death in 1959 is a departure from his earlier Prairie School designs. This work may be classified under three plan types: the rectangular, the polygonal, and the circular. The rectangular is represented in Wrights Usonian houses such as the Malcolm Willey House in the Prospect Park neighborhood of Minneapolis. (Usonian was a term he coined to make the point that this style was directly suited to the U.S. of A.) Fasbender Clinic, Hastings, 1959 According to architectural scholar Marcus Whiffen these houses were essentially Prairie School designs brought up to date with flat roofs and certain structural and mechanical innovations. The Fasbender Clinic in Hastings, constructed in 1959, represents the polygonal type. Minnesota has no examples of the circular type. Masonry Paint Wood Siding Windows

46 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Sullivanesque Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Sullivanesque Prairie School Bungalow Art Deco or Moderne International Style Modern Revivals Styles of the Modern Era Restoration Materials Named for architect Louis Henry Sullivan, the Sullivanesque Style is often considered the precursor to the Prairie School in its departure from academic forms and ornament from historical architecture. Although most Sullivanesque buildings are classical in their presentation, the chief characteristic of this style is the use of ornament derived from organic and geometric forms. When cast into terracotta, the ornament becomes both a lightweight wall as well as an artistic tapestry. Throughout its seeming complexity, Sullivans ornament is distinguished from the Art Nouveau by its symmetry. A number of contemporary architects employed the Sullivanesque principles of,Advance Thresher Building, Minneapolis, 1900 architecture and ornament to their own work, including Frank Lloyd Wright and George Grant Elmslie, who worked for Sullivan from 1888 to Elmslies partnership with William Gray Purcell is most noteworthy in the Prairie School for a series of Midwestern banks, inspired by Sullivans Farmers National Bank in Owatonna. Buildings employing Sullivanesque design and ornament in Minnesota include the Advance Thresher/Emerson Newton Plow Company Building, the Chamber of Commerce/Grain Exchange Building, and the Flour Exchange Building, all in Minneapolis. Masonry Paint Wood Windows

47 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Bungalow Style Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Styles of the Modern Era Beginning in the second decade of the 20th century, the Bungalow style is a contemporary of the Prairie School and incorporates a similar affinity for simple design and natural materials. Its inspiration originates in India in the late 19th century, and bungalow comes from the Hindi word for house in the Bengal style. Idealized as the efficient home for working-class Americans, it remained popular until World War II, when it was superseded by the suburban tract house. Over the years bungalow has become synonymous with small, comfortable home. It first appeared in California and spread like wildfire throughout the country. It was a well-received solution to the dilemma of affordable housing for rapidly growing communities with limited and antiquated housing, and as a solution for urban expansion into planned suburban neighborhoods. A great variety of designs was soon readily available through builders catalogues depicting mass-produced elements available at lumber yards everywhere. Entire neighbor- hoods of bungalows sprang up seemingly overnight. A Bungalow style house, however, was well- constructed and durable. Typically, all living Rowe House, Jasper, 1905 Rolvaag House, Northfield, 1912 more Prairie School Restoration Materials Bungalow Art Deco or Moderne International Style Modern Revivals Sullivanesque Masonry Paint Wood Siding Windows

48 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page rectangular plan, bungalows usually have gable roofs, which either sweep from the ridge to the porch or form a series of repetitive gables with dormers. The exteriors are clad in wooden clapboards, shingles or stucco, sometimes with areas of rustic, wire-cut brick.wire-cut brick Ornamentation includes massive angular brackets and exposed rafter tails that support broad overhanging eaves. The angularity of the brackets and supporting porch posts, as well as the extensive use of natural wood inside, earned the Bungalow its nickname, Craftsman Style. brackets rafter tails space was on one floor, with the half-story designated on building plans as an expansion. This allowed for one or two additional rooms to be built to accommodate a growing family. More space was provided by a full basement and a three-season porch that usually opened off the living room. Built-ins, such as buffets, sideboards, bookcases, cabinets and nooks, emphasized a conscientious use of space, where utility superceded frivolity. A bungalows massive fireplace was its premier feature, faced in brick or stone with a wooden mantle. On the houses exterior, the chimney provided the styles visual signature. Woodwork in the principal rooms was hardwoodmost often quarter- sawn oak or maplewith pine or fir used in secondary rooms. The wood quarter- sawn Bungalow Style (continued) was stained or had a natural varnished finish. Walls and ceilings were painted, often with a textured plaster finish. Using a simple back to previous page Arthyde House, Aitkin, 1922 Prairie School Restoration Materials Bungalow Art Deco or Moderne International Style Modern Revivals Styles of the Modern Era Sullivanesque Masonry Paint Wood Siding Windows

49 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Art Deco or Moderne Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page The Art Deco style was introduced in Paris at the 1929 Exposition Internationale des Artes Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes. At its onset, it was a decorative arts movement that streamlined the revival of Art Nouveau and rapidly became a style of architecture as well, reaching the United States by the late 1920s. It was instantly popular and continued to influence the building industry into the 1950s. The Art Deco style (or Moderne, which refers specifically to architecture) had two distinct phases. The first, labeled Zig-Zag Moderne for its profusion of geometric, angular forms, was popular until the mid-1930s. The second phase incorporated curvilinear forms and was labeled Streamline Moderne.curvilinear Moderne reached its zenith during the Great Depression and became associated with federal building projects undertaken by the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Virtually every community had a post office, city hall, or community center erected as a result of WPA programs. These buildings combine the decorative qualities of Art Deco with the Classical styles restrained formalism. This can be seen in symmetrical facades, fluted columns or pilasters and low-relief sculptural panels. pilasters Federal assistance was also used to revitalize a communitys commercial district with new buildings and developments in the Moderne style. Built with the innovative use of Moderne style building materials and technology, theseModerne style building materials and technology more Waverly Village Hall, Waverly, 1939 Prairie School Restoration Materials Bungalow Art Deco or Moderne International Style Modern Revivals Styles of the Modern Era Sullivanesque Masonry Paint Wood Windows

50 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Art Deco or Moderne (continued) been revitalized as community performance theaters, but the majority have been lost. Until recently, Art Deco or Moderne architecture has been unrecognized as a candidate for preservation because of its relative newness in collective memory. Only recently have the merits of this era been studied by scholars. As a result, Art Deco has again been popularized in art forms and interior design, fostering a new respect for its architecture. back to previous page Park House, Bemidji, 1936 Prairie School Restoration Materials Bungalow Art Deco or Moderne International Style Modern Revivals Styles of the Modern Era buildings made a statement of the quest for progress and prosperity. In residential construction, Midwesterners preferred traditional styles such as the Colonial/ Georgian Revival and the Bungalow to the Moderne. As a result, few intact Moderne style residences remain in Minnesota.Colonial/ Georgian Revival Bungalow Of Moderne commercial buildings, theaters have been subjected to the most alterations with changing entertainment tastes. Some have New York Mills City Hall, New York Mills, ca 1940 Sullivanesque Masonry Paint Wood Siding Windows

51 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Moderne Building Materials & Technology Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page District #8 School, New Avon Twp., 1908 back to Art Deco/Moderne History Prairie School Restoration Materials Bungalow Art Deco or Moderne International Style Modern Revivals Styles of the Modern Era In addition to its decorative qualities, the Moderne style is noted for innovation in building materials and technology. Poured and reinforced concrete, along with the steel skeletal frame, became a standard for the structural framework. Both in residences and in public buildings, common treatment for floors was terrazzo. terrazzo Exteriors (and in some instances interiors) were clad in fine stone veneers and polished or matte- finished metal panels; stucco or split stone was also popular. Bronze and aluminum were extensively used for hardware, entrance portals and lighting fixtures. Glass block was an innovative building material for the period, used for walls, windows and decorative panels, often with concealed colored lights. Another innovation was neon lighting, used not only for signage, but to accentuate architectural forms. One of the most popular technological innovations was a pigmented glass tile called Virtolite; it was most often used as an exterior cladding material on commercial buildings. Finally, many Moderne buildings incorporate sculptural treatments, such as low-relief panels with stylized figures, distinctive light standards, metal railings and fine millwork. Sullivanesque Masonry Paint Wood Siding Windows

52 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document International Style Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page In the years between World War I and World War II, there was a synthesis between industrial technology and architecture in Prairie School Restoration Materials Bungalow Art Deco or Moderne International Style Modern Revivals Styles of the Modern Era Christ Church Lutheran, Minneapolis, 1948 Germany, France and Holland. Combined with art, this resulted in the formation of the Bauhaus in Weimar, Germany, by Walter Gropius. As both a place and a movement, Bauhaus (meaning house of building) spearheaded the development of the International style. architects and others from the Bauhaus School during World War II. Here the International style rose to prominence and remained popular through the 1970s. Promoted by Walter Gropius, Ludwig Meis van der Rohe, and Le Corbusier, the style emigrated to the United States with these The style was intended to represent the architecture of the machine age. It was controlled by a strict design that dictated a lightweight frame and curtain-wall construction, open planning, standardized industrial materials, cubistic forms, a linear geometry of openings, asymmetrical composition, flat roofs, smooth, continuous wall surfaces, and the rejection of all applied ornament. more Sullivanesque Masonry Paint To summarize the design principle of the style, Meis van der Rohe coined the dictum, less is more. Wood Siding Windows

53 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document International Style (continued) Characteristics of the International style include an emphasis on volume and proportion, thin membrane walls and large expanses of glass. Exteriors are often sheathed with metal, plywood panels, or stucco. Operable windows are either double-hung or casement, often set into groups that extend around corners. Non-residential buildings are multi-storied with exteriors that present a flat, box-like appearance; patterns are created by relationships of glass wall panels or metal. Although popular for commercial and institutional buildings, the International style was never strongly supported by residential architects and builders. The flat roofs, membrane walls, and broad expanses of glass were found to be Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Styles of the Modern Era Prairie School Bungalow Art Deco or Moderne International Style Modern Revivals Restoration Materials problematic in Minnesota, where there was a strong preference for more traditional building types. As a result, many International style buildings have not stood the test of time. Machine-produced and synthetic building materials pose special challenges for preservation, as they are often costly and not candidates for the do-it-yourself-er. The future of the International style in Minnesota is as yet uncertain. back to previous page Sullivanesque Masonry Paint Windows of Christ Church Lutheran, Minneapolis, 1948 Wood Siding Windows

54 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Modern Revivals Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Revivals of architectural styles can be likened to a pendulum. Upon introduction, the style begins its swing to a high point of acceptance, after which it reverses and begins to descend. The lowest point of the swing represents the demise of the style and its replacement with a new style. Just as a pendulum continues to swing, Prairie School Restoration Materials Bungalow Art Deco or Moderne International Style Modern Revivals Styles of the Modern Era Example of Modern Revival that blends well with existing architecture St. Paul, 1980s however, the styles popularity again swings upward and a revival takes shape with a new interpretation, new materials, and new technology. Chapel at Gustavus Adolphus, St. Peter earlier work, but are innovative creations with historical precedents, coupled with contemporary materials and technology. The resulting revivals are aesthetic revivals, rather than a return to the builders craft of earlier generations. Such futuristic expressions of Victorian, Prairie and Art Deco styles will lead us well into the 21st century. Sullivanesque Masonry Paint Wood Siding Windows Today, a number of styles from various periods in history have again risen to popularity. These revivals are not pure replications of

55 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Restoration & Maintenance of Log Buildings Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page The majority of the "pioneer" era buildings were not intended to be permanent. Many were hastily constructed of local materials, and as time went on, some were relegated to service uses on farms, demolished, or incorporated within later structures. Those which were enclosed in later structures are continually being discovered during rehabilitation projects. The primary reason for their survival is their protection from the deteriorating effects of weather. Visual Inspection Sounding & Probing Logs Preservation Techniques Log buildings that have been buffeted by the elements, if not properly maintained and protected, will probably present more problems than most enthusiasts are willing to tackle. Restoring and preserving log buildings, whether of the pioneer or of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) rustic era, is labor intensive and not for the novice. Restoration and preservation include the following activities: Visual Inspection Sounding & Probing Preservation Techniques Log Replacement Log Repair For additional information, see Preservation Brief #26 - The Preservation and Repair of Historic Log Buildings, available from the Minnesota Historical Society. Seitaniemi Barn, Waasa Twp., 1910 Log Replacement Log Repair

56 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Visual Inspection of a Log Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Log Buildings The number one enemy of any building is moisture which enters through the roof, ground and, in the case of log structures, the walls. The logs are not only a surface facing, they are the structure itself. When moisture enters the spaces between the logs, the walls will begin to rot from the inside and the full extent of the damage may not be noticed until it is too late. The most important step in any preservation project is periodic inspection and maintenance. The checklist should address every part of the building from the roof, sill, windows, and doors to the chinking or daubing.sillchinkingdaubing The first step is to visually inspect the logs from sill to ridge. The sill log is the primary support and rests on the foundation. Above the sill log, the structural integrity is in the corner Sounding & Probing Logs Preservation Techniques Visual Inspection joints for hewn log buildings and in the "scribes" for rustic log buildings. The difficulty of log replacement, should this be necessary, is directly related to the method of construction and a variety of specific techniques are required.hewn scribeslog replacement To assess a log building, first look for settlement, surface rot, abnormal compression of individual logs, and evidence of insect infestation. Look for open cracks or gaps in the log faces and the accumulation of debris in the checks. If the building is chinked, check for open cracks between the daubing and the logs as well as loose or missing sections. checks Finally, inspect the log ends or crowns for rot or missing sections. Photographs are extremely helpful in documenting conditions and developing work specifications. Log Replacement Log Repair

57 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Sounding & Probing Logs Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page There is an acquired technique for sounding and probing logs for solidity. Each log is "sounded" by hitting it with a crowbar and listening for hollow areas or rotted centers. A hollow log sounds like a drum. (A solid log gives a particular resonance which forms the basis for comparison.) Logs identified in the process are then probed with a long ice pick to determine the depth of rot or the extent of a void. Vulnerable areas include open upward checks, the inner surfaces of hewn logs where chinking is missing, and logs which show evidence of insect infestation (small holes and trails of sawdust).checkshewn chinking If the building is essentially sound, and only minor deterioration is detected, it may be possible to preserve it without log replacement.log replacement Log Replacement Visual Inspection Sounding & Probing Logs Preservation Techniques Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Log Buildings Sounding a log Log with powder post beetle infestation Log Repair

58 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Log Preservation Techniques Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Some preservation techniques are simple: Sill logs should not be allowed to touch the ground; they should be at least eight inches above it Sill logs Vegetation should be cleared away from the foundation Water should be directed away from the sills with proper slope and drainage. The addition of gutters and rain leaders should be considered.rain leaders Fumigation or chemical treatment can address insect problems and preservatives ranging from linseed oil to borate solutions may be applied to log surfaces along with water repellent coatings. Visual Inspection Sounding & Probing Logs Log Preservation Techniques Log Replacement Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Log Buildings While some of these techniques can easily be accomplished by the amateur, application of chemicals, fumigants, and preservatives may require the services of professionals. An extensive listing of products for use on log buildings is available from Schroeder Log Home Supply in Grand Rapids, Minnesota. Fawcett House, Breezy Point, 1922 Log Repair

59 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Log Replacement Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Replacing a wall log is relatively straightforward, but one must be especially attentive to the structural properties of the log and the construction of the wall or even the simplest Visual Inspection Sounding & Probing Logs Preservation Techniques Log Replacement Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Log Buildings and cracking them. Thus, when positioning jacks or supports, it is critical to place them as near to the stress points as possible. There are two techniques to lift a log wall. The first involves inserting steel plates immediately above the log to be replaced. The plates extend through the wall and the building is lifted by positioning a jack under each end of the plate (inside and outside). The problem with this is that the subject log must be removed by sliding it along its entire length rather than simply rolling it out. Jack base and cribbing must be firmly anchored to prevent the jack from "kicking out," causing the walls collapse and potentially serious injury. cribbing The second jacking method involves cribbing or "cradling" the wall between dimensional lumber "cribs" secured through the wall by threaded rods, washers, and nuts. (See photo.) The cribs are snugged tightly to restrain the logs between them. The jack is placed under Positioning the support to replace a log operation can end in disaster. The corner is both the strongest and weakest part of the structural system, locking the walls together and transmitting the weight of the building down to the foundation. In preparation for lifting a building to remove a log, one needs to realign this weight slightly without causing stress on the critical joints more Log Repair

60 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Log Replacement (continued) Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page the crib and the wall is lifted until the log becomes free to roll out of position. A number of jacks and cribs are required to lift a wall to distribute weight equally and prevent the remaining wall sections from wracking and breaking.wracking When the replacement log is maneuvered into position, it is critical that the profiles of the joint and the log itself match the original log. A correct fit often requires a bit of fine-tuning, and it is not uncommon to raise and lower a wall section several times, or to remove the replacement log for adjustment and reinstallation. (See photo.) If several logs require replacement, the process is repeated until all logs have been replaced. If a significant number of logs require replacement, it may be easier to disassemble and reassemble the building. This Visual Inspection Sounding & Probing Logs Preservation Techniques Log Replacement Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Log Buildings Replacing a log radical approach has the adverse effect of destroying significant details or finishes, but it does allow careful analysis of each log. It is back to previous page Log Repair impractical for larger buildings. The replacement log should be of the same species as that used in the original construction, and, it must be dry. Ideally, it should be left to air dry for up to three years prior to use. "Green" wood should never be used. The surface treatment of the replacement log must be similar in texture and finish to the rest of the wall, whether hewn or scribed. Then when left to weather naturally, the replacement log will gradually assume the appearance of the original logs.hewn scribed

61 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Log Repair Epoxies have become very popular, but expensive, components in log building restoration. A "half-log face" can easily be fashioned in the profile of the original log and secured in place with epoxy consolidants and inert fiberglass rods. (Metal rods are not advisable; fiberglass is more compatible with the properties of the wood.) A typical facing job does not usually require any jacking or log removal, only careful fitting. A similar operation can replace rotted crowns or log ends. Epoxy consolidants are also used to rebuild deteriorated sections of a log, where damage is not substantial enough for log replacement, facing, or splicing. Deteriorated portions are removed and the cavity rebuilt with a mixture of epoxy and sawdust (of the same Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Visual Inspection Sounding & Probing Logs Preservation Techniques Log Replacement Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Log Buildings Log Repair Epoxy applied to repair a log species as the log). This technique leaves a distinct "patch" which may be made less obvious by sanding and staining or, in some historically appropriate cases, whitewashing. It should not be considered for highly visible locations. Daubing and chinking are the materials applied between log fill joints to make the building weather-tight. Chinking is the "filler material such as saplings, mesh, etc. Daubing is the mortar or paste-like composition tooled into the joint, to cover the chinking. There are many daubing products on the market today which are substantially more more durable than historic mixes but have drawbacks when historical accuracy is required. Overall, modern products are

62 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Log Repair (continued) Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Visual Inspection Sounding & Probing Logs Preservation Techniques Log Replacement Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Log Buildings Log Repair elastic in nature and provide a strong, crack-resistant bond which limits water intrusion. They are available in standard colors. For modern, state-of-the-art log building, commercially available daubing mixes have a definite advantage in durability. Historically, the spaces between logs were filled with a variety of materials, from saplings packed with mud and straw to lime and sand mortar. How much chinking and daubing is needed depends on the quality of log craftsmanship. For large spaces, a combination of chinking and daubing is required. Use a daubing recipe to create the right consistency for the paste. The paste is easily trowled into joints and contoured for rainwater runoff. After the mortar has begun to set, it isdaubing recipe re-trowled to smooth and seal hairline cracks which occur from direct exposure to sun and high temperatures. Large chink areas must be re-daubed, or touched up, later since cracks will normally develop as the mix cures. Where there are large spaces between logs, a spacer material must be added, or the daubing will not be effective. Historically, this spacer material was made of dry saplings wedged in place. Modern spacer materials include rigid foam and stainless steel wire lath, held in place with stainless steel fasteners or nails. Daubing is applied directly to the spacer, concealing it from view and weather. Maintenance for a log building includes periodic repairs to daubing and chinking. If an historically appropriate mix is used, it is not uncommon to re-daub every five to ten years. This, in addition to yearly inspection of the logs, roof, windows, and site, will extend the life of the building well into the future. back to previous page

63 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Daubing Recipe (for Log Repair) The basic ingredients of an historically appropriate daubing mix are sand, hydrated lime, and water, blended together to form a soft, elastic mixture. A recommended mixture is 6 parts sand, 4 parts lime, and 1 part mason's cement as a general rule for most historic log buildings. Hard mortars with a high content of Portland cement are taboo! A small amount of Portland (1 part) can, however, be added to the mix for greater strength. Add a small amount of liquid latex grout additive (found at tile stores) to promote adhesion of the mix to the log surfaces. The materials are blended together until a stiff, paste-like consistency is formed. Preparing the daubing mixture, Muskego Church, Luther Seminary, St. Paul Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Visual Inspection Sounding & Probing Logs Preservation Techniques Log Replacement Log Repair Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Log Buildings Applying the daubing mixture

64 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page The principle categories of masonry are stone, brick, terra cotta (or clay tile), concrete and stucco. With the exception of poured concrete, masonry construction is comprised of individual units held in place with mortar.stonebrickterra cotta concrete and stucco mortar As with any building material, masonry is vulnerable to weathering. Periodic inspection and maintenance is critical to the preservation of masonry structures. Neglecting to do so could eventually mean the loss of the structure itself. Masonry damage can be caused by improperly cleaning the masonry surface and by the effects of harmful water-repellant coatings.cleaning the masonry surface water-repellant coatings Water, or moisture, is directly or indirectly responsible for the Restoring the marble in the Landmark Center, St. Paul, ca 1975 majority of problems in virtually every type of construction. Water enters a building from the ground or through walls (especially the mortar) and roofs. As water vapor, it may be trapped within the structure only to wreak havoc before it is discovered. Saturated masonry is especially prone to lose its structural properties, breaking down to the point where the units collapse. This problem is greatly increased by Minnesotas wide fluctuations in temperature and humidity which retard or temporarily halt the natural drying process essential to preservation. more afterduringbefore

65 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry (continued) Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Wind and rain erode the mortar, exposing sand aggregate. Continual erosion causes the mortar to recede, opening penetrations into the wall for water to enter, saturate the interior and freeze. When water freezes, it expands, driving the joint open and forcing the masonry units apart, eventually breaking the bond. For this reason, it is critical to inspect mortar joints and maintain their sound condition. You can replenish lost mortar by repointing.repointing Unlike stone or brick, concrete is a composite mix of sand or gravel (aggregate) bound together with cement. When water is added, the mix undergoes a chemical reaction and hardens. Concrete is especially vulnerable to freezing and thawing, as it readily absorbs moisture. Because of this, concrete repair is different from other masonry repair.concrete repair Many concrete and tile buildings have stucco, a two- or three-part plaster-like coating applied to their exteriors. Considered a protective coating, it is applied directly onto masonry or over wood or metal lath in frame construction. It is particularly susceptible to water damage and successful stucco repair requires an experienced professional plasterer.lath stucco repair Cementous coatings such as dryvit and gunniteare commonly applied over deteriorated masonry to reestablish a sound exterior surface. Unfortunately, these coatings include a high percentage of Portland cement and do not have the same expansion properties as the masonry beneath. They form a strong bond to the masonry and, if removed, cause damage to it. They also retard escape of trapped moisture in the wall. Use of these products is strongly discouraged! back to previous page

66 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Stone Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page The earliest material to be used for Minnesota buildings was stone, readily available near the building site. It is obtained in two ways: from natural outcroppings or scattered deposits and by quarrying. Quarrying is the process of extracting stone from the earth by drilling, blasting, fracturing, or cutting it from the quarry face. It is then shaped and finished for use in construction. Four examples of quarries which contributed immensely to Minnesotas building construction are located at Kasota, Sandstone, Cold Spring/Rockville, and Jasper. Along river valleys, limestone was prevalent, both in the gray Platteville and yellow Mankato/Kasota varieties. The stone was removed in natural layers or strata with picks and crowbars. Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry Problems arise when sedimentary stone is not laid up in accordance with its bedding plane, i.e. laid vertically when the bedding plane runs horizontally. Contractors have used this improper practice when the original thickness of stone is not readily available and they lay up the stone as a veneer. Unfortunately, the stone is weakest when not in its bedding plane, will absorb moisture between strata, and will spall from thermal stress and weathering.spall Men quarrying limestone, St. Paul more Early stonemasons were familiar with the properties of limestone and other sedimentary stone and layed up the stone according to its bedding plane. If the plane ran horizontally in the deposit, the stone was laid so that it was horizontal in the construction of the building wall.

67 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry Early stonemasons were also aware that certain stone types had more weatherability than others and used each type in accordance with its properties. Platteville limestone tends to fracture along strata and is more vulnerable to effects of weathering. Kasota stone is more dense and has a higher resistance to weathering. Accordingly, stonemasons regularly used Platteville stone for foundations below grade and Kasota stone for above grade exterior walls. Rustic style building at Gooseberry Falls, Silver Creek Twp, ca 1930s Stone (continued) Fieldstone was also readily available, found in many areas of the state which had been affected by glaciers. In laying up fieldstone, adherence to bedding plane is far less critical. Stones may be laid up in their natural form, or broken and squared to fit with other stones in the wall. After milled lumber became available, fieldstone was used primarily in foundations, fireplaces, and chimneys. Fieldstone construction experienced a resurgence during the 1920s and 30s as a distinctive characteristic of the Rustic style. back to previous page

68 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Brick Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Brick is the second earliest masonry type found in Minnesota after brick. Unlike the extraction of stone, brick making requires a technological process to reach its final form. The primary ingredient in brick is clay, found in deposits in lowlands or river valleys. The soft clay may or may not be supplemented with a binder (early brick often had straw). It is packed into molds and set aside to dry and stiffen; in this form, the brick is called green. After an appropriate time period, the green bricks are removed from the molds and stacked in a kiln to be fired. The intensity of heat and duration of firing determines the strength and durability of the brick. The process is similar to baking bread; a brick has a protective outer layer or crust with a softer interior. When the exterior crust is damaged or removed, the brick rapidly Bricks of Hannaford Farm, Monticello Twp, 1870 Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry deteriorates. Sandblasting effectively removes the crust and drastically reduces the life expectancy of the brick! Brick colors come from minerals in the clay deposits which, when fired, are transformed to produce reds, yellows, and even ferrous purples. Soft-fired, or common, brick makes up the cores of walls and exposed secondary facades. Hard fired, or face, brick is used on principal facades and surfaces were a crisp, durable image is desired. Yet another type of brick is used for paving or subterranean culverts. Brick may also be glazed to provide a sanitary, impervious surface for use in areas of food production such as creameries and meat processing plants.

69 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Terra Cotta Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Like brick, terra cottas principal ingredient is clay. Unlike brick, terra cotta is not a load-bearing structural material. It is used primarily for facing or veneer. It is often ornamental, having been made in molds, then fired in the same fashion as ceramics. Since terra cotta shrinks during the firing, the molds are enlarged so the final proportion is correct. Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry Terra cotta is often glazed and pigmented. If the glazing or outer skin is removed or damaged, the material will rapidly deteriorate. Architects and builders made extensive use of terra cotta in their designs for Commercial and Prairie School style buildings, popular during the first decades of the 20th century. Terra cotta from the Grain Exchange (1902) in Minneapolis

70 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Concrete & Stucco Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Concrete is considered modern on the masonry timeline. Although cement and concrete dates back to Roman times, it did not become a popular building material until early in the 20th century. It was introduced around the Civil War as grout or gravel wall construction. In this form, a slurry of cement, lime, and gravel was poured into slip forms which could be moved as the wall rose in height. Probably because of the ready availability of brick and wood, the concept was soon abandoned and reintroduced for poured concrete foundations at the turn of the century. With the addition of iron reinforcing bars, such construction was quite strong and durable. By the 1920s poured/reinforced concrete construction was common in buildings and structures such as bridges and grain elevators. Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry Concrete was also produced in modular form as blocks of various sizes and textural finishes. Blocks were poured in forms, and could be ready for use in construction after a short curing period. When first on the broad market, concrete blocks were considered technologically fashionable and more Concrete Robert Street Bridge in St. Paul, built using Styrofoam molds (above) to create the finished bridge (below) were left exposed. Patterns made possible by molds allowed some blocks to resemble hewn stone while others presented a vivid array of color from a variety of aggregates.

71 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Concrete & Stucco (continued) Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry Exposed concrete block, however, soon fell from fashion and became the infrastructure of the walls, hidden beneath veneers and cladding. Rusticated or rock-faced block has experienced a revival for use in historically sensitive new construction. Hollow clay tile was a popular material for lightweight construction of walls and vaulted ceilings during the late nineteenth century. It is, for the most part, not a load-bearing material and is used in panel construction to fill space between structural members such as posts and beams in a skeletal frame. Some examples of exposed tile exist from the 1920s and 1930s, but these are usually utilitarian structures such as garages, well-houses, etc. To provide protection from the elements and to give the wall a finish, plain concrete block and hollow tile were given a coating of stucco. Essentially a cement/mortar slurry, stucco was applied like a plaster. It could be textured and pigmented and used as infill within the mock half-timber panels of a Tudor Revival cottage. It could also convey the image of a southwestern adobe and it was essential to the Prairie School. Later it was used to cover up underlying deterioration and structural deficiencies. House with stucco exterior back to previous page

72 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Mortar Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page The earliest mixture to be considered mortar was simply lime and sand, mixed with water to form a thick putty. Lime was obtained from burning limestone in kilns, and then allowing the quicklime powder that resulted from the burning to slake by re-hydrating it. This soft mortar mixture bonds with the walls masonry units, holding it in place, while also permitting it to expand and contract with changes in temperature and settlement. slake The mortars softness, however, meant it was greatly susceptible to weathering and erosion. The solution was to add a small portion of Portland cement to the mix. The more durable the mortar became, however, the more rigid it became as well. The resulting stress on the masonry units Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry retarded their natural movement and caused them to fracture and spall within the unresponsive mortar.spall To avoid this, masonry types with similar characteristics to Portland cement were developed. Therefore, when repointing (replacing mortar in) an old building, one must be familiar with the properties of both the masonry and the mortar to assure compatibility.repointing Applying mortar to stone Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Richardsonian Masonry

73 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Repointing Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry Cutting mortar joints with a pneumatic cutter there are three basic things to consider: Softness of mortar Replicating color & texture of historic mortar Retaining original joint profile Although most people refer to all masonry repair as "tuckpointing", this term specifically refers to a particular treatment that uses a raised "bead on a joint, often of a contrasting color, to emphasize the lines between the blocks. The correct term for general masonry repair is pointing or repointing. To determine whether repointing is needed, one must assess the physical condition and appearance of the wall. Obvious indications that work is necessary include loose or missing mortar; cracks between the mortar and the masonry units; spalling spalling or fracturing surfaces; efflorescence (white scum); or the presence of Removing old mortar to a point of soundness dampness and discoloration. The reasons for these conditions must be identified to determine the proper treatment. There is no standard recipe for repair, but more In older masonry buildings, youll often find instance where the above considerations have not been observed. Turn of the century red brick buildings may have been repointed with steel-gray Portland cement mortar, instead of the sandy tan original, and joints may have been almost doubled in width by inappropriate cutting.

74 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Repointing (continued) Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry For the work to last and justify the effort (repointing is costly and time and labor intensive), proper preparation is a must. The old mortar must be removed to a point of soundness, usually to a one-inch depth or greater. The joint must be clean and free from residue and then wetted to enhance the bond of the old and new mortars. In joints where old mortar has been removed to a depth greater than one inch, new mortar must be applyed in layers, allowing each layer to dry thumb-print hard before applying the next. If not, cracks will develop and the mortar will not bond. After repointing, the mortar must be allowed to cure to become strong, approximately a month under normal temperature conditions (40 to 95 degrees F). During the final Further information can be found in National Park Service "Preservation Brief #2: Repointing Mortar Joints in Historic Brick Buildings". back to previous page stages of curing, remove surface residue with soap and a natural bristle brush. (Do not use acid-based masonry cleaners; they tend to leave a white residue and, if not neutralized, penetrate into and weaken the mortar.) A poor job will only accelerate deterioration and create a not-so-easily corrected eyesore. And even the best repointing job will not last if a leaking gutter or downspout is not repaired. Masonry buildings were constructed for durability and longevity. Poor work has a long-term impact. Do it right! Cutting mortar joints with a pneumatic cutter

75 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Mortar Softness Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Back to Repointing Mortar Mortar must be softer than the material it bonds. That is to say, when a brick wall expands and contracts due to temperature fluctuations, the majority of tensile or compressive stress must be taken up by the mortar rather than the brick. If the reverse is true, the mortar will resist the bricks expansion, causing the surface to spall or the brick to crack. To prevent this, a mortar analysis by a qualified masonry contractor is recommended. spall Cracking, caused by non-elasticity of mortar Older mortars contain a high percentage of lime and sand, resulting in a soft, elastic mortar. Portland cement, on the other hand, is extremely hard and provides little elasticity. High Portland mortar mixes, when used on softer, low-fired brick, will cause the damage described above. Portland cement is also very difficult to remove after it has hardened (or cured), and doing so may inadvertently damage the brick. Most soft, high-lime mortars available today include a small amount of Portland cement; this actually increases the workability and durability of the mortar and has little effect on the elasticity. The hardness of Portland mortar (shown here) can damage log structures

76 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Replicating Historic Mortars Color & Texture Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Early mortars were made with locally obtained river sands of varying granular sizes and colors. Erosion over the years exposes the sand granules of the mortar giving the surface "texture". Newly repointed joints with a smoother texture, even when the same sand is used, will appear different. While inevitable, the difference may be soften by gently brushing or abrading the new joint surface Back to Repointing Mortar Mixing mortar to replicate original color during the curing process. This approach is, however, time-consuming and not often recommended. Commercially available pigments can provide the necessary color match, but remember that the final color will change as the mortar cures, so test samples must be made to assure compatibility with the original mortar. Applying correctly pigmented mortar

77 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Retaining Original Joint Profile Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Early Architecture of Minnesota The critical elements of a joint profile are dimension (thickness) and tooling (the shape of the joint profile, i.e.: concave, convex, angular, beaded, etc.). The appearance of the joint dimension is directly affected by the way the joint has been tooled. A raked (recessed) joint usually appears narrower than a similar joint that has been repointed flush to the wall surface. Back to Repointing Mortar Pneumatic chisels (which should never be used on vertical joints) and mechanical cutters can inadvertently widen the joints by cutting away portions of the brick. This is why building conservators often recommend using only hand methods to assure as little damage as possible to the historic materials. And when a wall is "spot-repointed," the variation in joint dimension becomes especially obvious in its undesirable appearance.

78 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Cleaning Masonry Surfaces Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page The Secretary of the Interiors Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties states: Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate, will be undertaking using the gentlest means possible. Treatments that cause damage to historic materials will not be used. Carrying this standard a bit further, we would suggest an Eleventh Commandment: Thou shalt not sandblast! The abrasive impact of sandblasting increases the materials vulnerability to erosion, significantly shortening the structures life expectancy. With sedimentary stone like limestone, softer areas are easily abraded and destroyed. In the case of brick, the crust from its kiln manufacturing process is removed or penetrated, allowing water to be absorbed into the soft interior. Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry Until recently, many utilitarian interiors, such as warehouses, were sandblasted as part of the buildings rehabilitation. Although the surfaces were abraded, it was felt to be acceptable because they were not exposed to weather. Unfortunately, sealers were often required to prevent accumulation of dirt and bacteria and the buildings occupants often suffered from the "filter-down" of fine grit and dust for years. Current opinion favors repainting these interiors and rehabilitating formerly plastered surfaces with gypsum board (sheetrock). Brick wall damaged by sandblasting Brick wall without sandblasting more

79 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Cleaning Masonry Surfaces (continued) Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page A variety of chemical cleaning products have also been developed. These include spray-on applications as well as poultices to draw out imbedded dirt and pollutants. Each product must be tested on site to assess its effectiveness. Many chemicals have adverse residual effects if not applied in strict accordance with manufacturers specifications; any application must be done by a professional contractor familiar with the product and its properties. It is not a job for amateurs.poultices The best cleaning agent is the most gentle, removing only what is detrimental to the material while retaining its natural patina. For example, a caustic chemical can remove the protective surface glazing from terra cotta. And applications of acidic cleaners can cause lime mortars to effloresce, staining theterra cottaeffloresce Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry surface white and potentially weakening the mortar. Care must also be taken when removing lead- based paint from masonry surfaces.lead- based paint Some dirt is easily removed by simply wetting the building surface with a biodegradable detergent, letting it soak in, and then rinsing it away with a garden hose! Stubborn residue may be dislodged with a stiff bristle brush. back to previous page For additional information, refer to Preservation Brief #6: Dangers of Abrasive Cleaning to Historic Buildings and Preservation Brief #38: Removing Graffiti from Historic Masonry.

80 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Water-Repellant Coatings Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Coatings that retard the penetration of water also inhibit the escape of trapped moisture inside. Many coatings form a shell through a molecular bond with the masonry. The chemicals applied are inert, but also irreversible. The consequences are long ranging and in many cases disastrous. Buildings constructed prior to 1950 did not include vapor barriers. When a water-repellant coating is applied later, water vapor from humidified interiors becomes trapped in the wall by the coatings. Allowed to freeze, the saturated masonry unit expands, forcing the outer surface to spall. The result: irreparable damage!spall Much attention has recently been given to the use of chemicals known as consolidants. Like other repellent coatings, consolidants form a Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Richardsonian Masonry molecular bond within the material to strengthen it against erosion. Consolidants are also said to allow the masonry to breathe, eliminating the threat of trapped water vapor. The result has been considered successful in recent tests, the majority of which have been conducted in temperate climates or controlled environments. Unfortunately, not enough is known of their long-term impact to recommend their use in Minnesotas climate. For additional information, refer to Preservation Brief #1: The Cleaning and Waterproof Coating of Masonry Buildings.

81 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Concrete Repair Concrete is especially vulnerable to freezing and thawing, as it readily absorbs moisture. Resulting problems include spalling; structural cracks from uneven settling or expansion; efflorescence or staining; and structural corrosion.spallingefflorescence Once a problem is identified, remedial work usually requires a professional, not a do-it-yourselfer. Patching requires the removal of deteriorated materials down to a sound substrate. For narrow cracks, a slurry of water and cement can be applied as filler; but if the cracks are the result of settling, an elastic sealant must be used.substrate Large repair areas require a patch of cement and sand to allow adequate compaction and bonding. Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry If the patch is deep, several layers may be required to assure that exposed reinforcing members are totally covered. It is highly likely that the concrete patch will not match the historic material; if repairs are extensive, it may be necessary to paint the surfaces with a special masonry paint for aesthetic reasons. For further information refer to Preservation Brief #15: Preservation of Historic Concrete: Problems and General Approaches. Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page

82 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Stucco Repair Stucco finishes are found in a variety of textures, ranging from smooth (like plaster) to heavily textured and pebble-dash exposed aggregate. Successful repair requires an experienced professional plasterer. Areas to be repaired must be prepared by removing deteriorated stucco down to the substrate or lath, layering the new stucco back to the required thickness, and then finishing its surface to match. When there has been extensive surface damage or deterioration but the substrate remains sound, it may be desirable to re-dash the entire building. The surface may be prepared by sandblasting, taking extreme care to protect trim, windows, doors, decorative elements, etc.substrate lath Back to Restoration & Maintenance of Masonry Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page For further information refer to Preservation Brief #22: The Preservation and Repair of Historic Stucco.

83 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Historic House Colors Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page The type and extent of colors used in historic houses varies with the houses architectural style. For example, the color of the sash is an important characteristic of the Victorian style; the sash should be the darkest detail so that the windows appear to recede into the façade. Typical colors for the late Victorian sash range from black to a greenish-black. During the mid-19 th century, particularly in the Gothic Revival, a prominent sash color was a red-brown.sash The recessed portions of cornice brackets and the recessed panels below bay windows or in a frieze were often subtly highlighted with a complementary color. An 1880s commentary suggests the temptation to use red on the porch cornice, brackets, or bargeboards should be resisted.cornice brackets friezebargeboards The upward thrust of the façade is intensified by dark trim color against a lighter body color. Vertical and horizontal trim details, carefully emphasized with darker colors, make a house appear smaller visually. In the Queen Anne house, the color scheme consists of grading the colors from heavy, rich shades at the bottom to lighter tones at the gable peak. The colors used are usually warm and rich. Trim may be painted a cooler color, for contrast and to emphasize the body colors. All buildings cannot be treated alike and colors that with some styles would be very effective are out of keeping on others. The house should be painted so that its salient features of form and detail will be enhanced. Queen Anne style Bennett-McBride House, Minneapolis, ca 1892 more Table of Exterior House Colors Victorian Gothic Queen Anne/ Eastlake Stick Style Paint

84 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Historic House Colors (continued) Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page In the mid-Victorian period, it was common for a cottage to have a belt-course of shingles or clapboard, with different colors on each story. The typical cottage would have a three-color scheme: body, trim, and detail. Sashes were typically in black in addition to the three colors. In Shingle style houses, it was recommended that the shingles be stained rather than painted. This style deviated from the typical black sash in recommending that the sash be painted a bronzed green. Typical colors for the early 20th century in the Classical Revival and Colonial Revival styles emphasized subdued color palates. Opinion was divided as to whether decorative details should be emphasized or painted out with the background. One color was chosen fro both trim and detail. Shutters, when used, were normally painted black. Colonial Revival sash color was commonly white; body colors ranged from soft grays, light drabs, and cream, with preference for white or ivory trim. Neo-Classic Revival style Buck House, Faribault, 1895 back to previous page Table of Exterior House Colors

85 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Table of Exterior House Colors by Architectural Style Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Architectural StyleWall ColorTrim ColorDoor Color Late Federal/ Greek Revival White Green gray Buff Blue gray Pale yellow Pale gray Olive green Buff Gray blue White Green black Black Dark green Medium blue black Gothic RevivalBuff Pink Green gray Blue gray Light gray Similar to wall color or painted a dark brown Oak, unpainted Gothic Revival/ItalianateMedium blue Medium red Dark brown Lighter than walls; contrasting door & shutters Oak, unpainted Queen Anne/Stick Style Dark colors emphasize architecture, mass, volume, & structure. Deep blue Tan Medium gray Slate Dark ocher Golden yellow Red Beige Olive green Dark gray Green black Medium or dark brown Oak, unpainted Colonial RevivalWhite Tan Light yellow Red gray Cream Warm white Oak, unpainted Bungalow/Craftsman Colors harmonize with natural surroundings Sand Stucco Brown Light gray White Lighter than walls; windows dark for contrast Brown Gray Tan Dark gray Green Gray Dark gray Prairie SchoolRed brown Red yellow Color outlines features Brown Light buff Light buff Brown Back to Historic House Colors

86 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Paint Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page When repairing painted surfaces, it is important to determine the cause of the paints failure. With proper preparation of the existing surface, many repairs require only a new paint layer; more advanced cases often require paint removal down to the wood substrate to apply a good base or primer.substrate If you choose to remove the paint, be aware of possible health and environmental hazards, as well as potential damage to the building itself. Most paints manufactured prior to 1950 are lead-based paints. The lead content directly extended the durability and life-expectancy of the paint, but it is toxic and requires special techniques and precautions for removal.lead-based paints Paint is a protective coating, and a temporary one at that. Its chief role is to keep water from penetrating the material and it is subject to the effects of sunlight and weather. Today, a good paint job will last five to eight years. As paint layers build up, underlying layers get brittle with age, and layers exposed to weather chalk and abrade. The more layers, the more likely that paint problems will develop. Depending on the substrates moisture control, a typical wooden surface may accept up to fifteen layers of paint before problems occur. If the surface is improperly prepared or there is a moisture problem, even one layer may fail within a short time! chalk abrade The U.S. Department of the Interior Preservation Assistance Division has identified three paint surface conditions: Accumulation of Grime Cracking, Peeling or Blistering Peeling to Bare Wood & Advanced Cracking The treatments for each are relative to the severity of the conditions. Historic House Colors

87 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Accumulation of Grime Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page The accumulation of grime on painted surfaces usually does not require paint removal. It is caused by pollution, organic matter build-up, mildew, chalking, and staining. Grime and organic matter can be removed by scrubbing the surface with a mild detergent and a soft-bristle brush. The surface should be rinsed and allowed at least two weeks under ideal conditions to dry before painting. Mildew can be similarly removed by using bleach in place of detergent. (For persistent mildew, specially formulated "mildew-resistant" primers and paints should be used.) Chalking is caused by disintegration of the paint from ultraviolet light (the sun). It, too, can be removed by scrubbing; a solution of TSP (tri-sodium-phosphate) will do the trick. Back to Paint Finally, staining may occur from inherent properties within the material or from surface pollution. Washing the surface with a mixture of equal parts of denatured alcohol and water and then applying a specially formulated "stain-blocking" primer should help prevent the stain from "bleeding" through the new paint layer.

88 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Cracking, Peeling or Blistering Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Cracking, peeling or blistering paint problems often require limited paint removal. The first problem is crazing, or surface cracking. It is aggravated by temperature and humidity and by the aging of sub-layers of paint. The surface can be prepared for repainting by light sanding and, where cracks are pronounced, filling with spackle or patching plaster. Peeling occurs where one coat does not bond to the previous coat because of poor surface preparation or incompatibility of paints (latex vs. oil). The best rule of thumb is to determine the original type of paint and stay with it. If peeling is due to incompatibility, the peeling layers must be removed down to a sound layer. Back to Paint Solvent blistering occurs when paints with high percentages of solvents dry too quickly from heat or direct exposure to sunlight. While moisture blisters penetrate and delaminate multiple layers from the substrate, solvent blisters usually only penetrate through one layer. Before repainting, the surface should be sanded.substrate Wrinkling is caused primarily by improperly applying the paint--either too thickly, before the previous coat is dry, or when the temperature is too high. Sanding is required to prepare this surface as well.

89 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Peeling to Bare Wood & Advanced Cracking Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page This paint problem is severe and generally requires total paint removal. Peeling results from excessive moisture in the material which causes the paint layers to delaminate from the substrate. If the moisture problem is not fixed, any paint application will fail. Wall cavities should be vented and delaminate substrate Back to Paint vapor barriers provided. Trees and shrubbery too close to exterior walls prevent sunlight from drying out excess moisture. Faulty roofs, gutters, cracks and holes can allow moisture to saturate the materials and cause peeling. The material must be allowed to dry thoroughly and remain dry before any painting is considered. Cracking and alligatoring is simply the advanced stage of less severe paint problems. Too many layers of paint, excessive moisture, and weathering all contribute to delamination, flaking, cracking, and blistering. Paint in this condition must be removed to bare wood, the cause of failure identified and corrected, and the surface properly prepared and primed to begin the painting process all over again. Paint peeling to bare wood

90 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Lead-Based Paint Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page There are certainly hazards inherent in lead-based paint, but, with understanding and care, most can be addressed with good results. Methods for lead abatement range from simple management to encapsulation to removal. Understanding the issues is vital to selecting the proper treatment. Paint is a protective coating against deterioration caused by exposure to the elements. When paint problems require that surfaces be stripped to a sound substrate, one runs head-on into the issue of how to deal with lead. substrate Lead was once the most common ingredient in oil-based paints. Widely used through the 1940s before latex paints were developed, it was banned as a Back to Paint homeowners. Easily obtainable kits are available to the general public for testing suspected lead paint. They can be purchased at hardware warehouse-type stores and the larger discount chains. The directions are easy to follow. The presence of lead is indicated by a color change in the test reagent. paint additive in If a surface was painted prior to that time, the chances are almost certain that the paint contains lead. During the late 1980s, increasing concern about health hazards from lead resulted in a number of laws and guidelines which today impact everyone from code officials to contractors tohealth hazards laws and guidelines Peeling wall paint more Back to Previous Page

91 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Lead-Based Paint (continued) Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Back to Paint preserve the buildings historic "document" and contain the older lead-bearing layers with a fresh coat of paint. A quick-reference chart prepared by Sharon C. Park, AIA, of the National Park Service, Preservation Assistance Division, Washington, D.C. will serve as a guide in managing lead- based paint in historic buildings. There are hazards in removing lead-based paint and there are methods you can use to reduce the hazards.hazards in removing lead-based paintreduce the hazards Unfortunately, historic buildings fall easy prey to improper lead abatement techniques. One of the most common approaches is encapsulation, or covering the surface with a material such as substitute siding or a thick, paint- like coating to prevent contact with the lead paint. These methods are relatively costly and visually and tactilely undesirable.siding The favored approach is a conscientious program of lead management to reduce the hazards of lead but not necessarily remove the lead-based paint. If removal is necessary, remove paint only to the sound substrate to back to previous page

92 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Reducing Lead-Paint Hazards Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Workers should also not eat, drink, or smoke where lead dust is present. Finally, anyone involved in lead paint removal should undergo periodic blood testing. After work, drop cloths and masking containing lead dust should be carefully enclosed in tight plastic bags before removal. Ordinary vacuuming is not enough to remove lead dust; special HEPA vacuums are essential. The surfaces of the room must also be given a final wash with a solution of trisodium phosphate (TSP) and water, changing the washing solution often and rinsing well. Check with the local county or municipal agency in your area that regulates and handles the disposal of hazardous waste to find out how to package and dispose of the lead residues that are generated by your project. Lead-paint hazards arise during paint removal and other home improvement projects. To reduce the hazards of ingestion, inhalation or contact, it is extremely important to prevent the dust from circulating by masking room openings and removing all curtains, carpeting, and upholstered furniture. Workers and others in the room should wear High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters in fit- tested respirator masks and include vapor filters if heat stripping is being used. (Fiber dust masks are not acceptable.) They should also change clothing just outside the room and leave the work clothes inside, and avoid any contact between bare skin (hands) and the paint being removed. Back to Lead-Based Paint Back to Previous Page

93 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Health Hazards with Lead-Based Paints Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Lead is found in older, oil-based paints as a "hiding pigment", due to its density and opacity. Chemically, it can be basic lead carbonate (2PbCO3-Pb(OH)2), lead carbonate or cerusite (PbCO3), or basic lead sulphate (PbSO4-PbO). In the painting industry, it is known commonly as white lead. The hazards are the same for the different compounds, since it is the lead itself that is toxic. Lead-based paint chips have a slightly sweet taste, which can be attractive to infants and toddlers, who generally place things in their mouths. Lead can be absorbed by direct ingestion, skin contact when in fume and dust form, and by inhalation of the fumes and dust. Toxic substances are characterized by their systemic effects on a Back to Lead-Based Paint bodys organ functions. Lead is classified as highly toxic, since its time-weight exposure average is 0.15 milligrams per cubic meter. This means that a very small amount inhaled or absorbed as a dust or fume during an eight- hour work day could cause serious problems. Acute exposure can cause colic, convulsions, coma and even death. This can occur in children at lower exposures, especially if ingested directly. Chronic exposure can cause anemia, and brain, nervous system and kidney damage. Lead accumulates in bones and tissue and may cause problems for prolonged periods of time. It is a teratogen, meaning that it causes problems to fetuses and can affect the reproductive capabilities of both men and women. There are hazards in removing lead-based paint and precautions must be taken to reduce these hazards.hazards in removing lead-based paint to reduce these hazards Back to Previous Page

94 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Laws & Guidelines on Lead-Based Paints Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page The Department of Housing and Urban Development [HUD] is mandated to assess and abate lead by Title X of the Housing and Community Development Act of the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act. Similar provisions have been included in Minnesota statutes and rules of the Department of Health. Information relative to these rulings can be obtained by calling the Minnesota Department of Health, Lead Program. Back to Lead-Based Paint

95 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Hazards of Removing Lead-Based Paint Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page For historic properties, the health hazards posed by lead-based paint can be broken down into "passive" and "active" hazards.health hazards A passive hazard is where the paint is flaking from the walls or window sills and can be picked up by children. This danger can be mitigated by proper housekeeping and by physically preventing children from touching the flakes. If the lead-based paint is painted over and isolated, and the work is properly done, than the hazard will be effectively eliminated. In historic properties where it can be proven that children will never be exposed to the existing lead paint, it may be possible to obtain a legal variance to the regulations. An active hazard, on the other hand, is the removal of the paint before repainting. Recommended Back to Lead-Based Paint paint removal methods invariably introduce lead into the immediate atmosphere of the work area. Work to remove lead paint such as scraping and dry sanding releases the lead in the dust. The lead dust then can enter the body's system through pores of the skin and the lungs. The use of heat guns, torches, or heating plates for stripping also creates toxic lead fumes which can be inhaled. Lead decomposes at 778 degrees F, which is within the range of commercially available heat guns. (The use of heat for stripping interior paint from wood is not recommended since it could start fires inside the walls.) The passive hazard of flaking paint Back to Previous Page Precautions should be taken to reduce the hazards of lead-based paint removal.reduce the hazards of lead-based paint removal

96 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Siding Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page A controversial issue for historic properties is the use of siding materials such as metal and vinyl. Although manufacturers praise the "compatibility and maintenance- free" qualities of these treatments, when improperly applied, they actually hasten deterioration by hiding problems rather than curing them. Minnesota's climate intensifies these problems to an alarming degree. The most common reason for using artificial siding is to reduce the cost of maintenance. Materials exposed to weather deteriorate over time and require constant care to preserve them. Wooden siding is susceptible to rot. Build-up of paint layers will sooner or later need to be removed and the surface repainted. Older buildings often have lead-based paint, and since modern paints do not have the durability of historic paints, they require more frequent repainting. The cost is usually significant, so the promise of never having to paint again is appealing--but disastrous!lead-based paint The primary cause of damage to buildings is water which saturates the interior of the wall cavity, including the structural members, the exterior sheathing, and the plaster. When unchecked, rot develops, leading to structural Removing siding from the Gag House in New Ulm reveals shingles & a window more click here for photo of house & description of its architectural style Back to previous page

97 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Siding (continued) Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page humidification during winter is trapped in the walls. This vapor condenses into water because it cannot escape. The structure begins to retain water and since this is hidden from view, the true extent of the problems is not realized until it is quite serious. To prevent this, avoid inappropriate treatments such as vinyl or metal siding. Let the building breathe as it was intended to do. Replace deteriorated exterior materials with exact replicas if at all possible. Get to the root of paint problems; don't cover them. Consider proper insulation, weatherstripping, and ventilation. Inappropriate materials and treatments also severely compromise the historic image and design quality of the property. When care is taken, historic properties can survive for generations to come. The decisions we make today, right or wrong, will decide their future. failure of sills, stud bases, and plaster. It also creates wall surface stains. To prevent this, a vapor barrier must be installed on the interior faces of walls and ceilings and the wall cavity must be vented. Buildings constructed before World War II seldom have vapor barriers. Unfortunately, installation of an adequate vapor barrier can be destructive to historic materials and surfaces. A minimal barrier can be created by special paint formulated for this purpose, but its installation on the inner face of wall often requires total removal of plaster and loss of historic fabric. When vinyl or metal siding is installed on a building which has no vapor barrier or ventilated wall cavity, water vapor from heating and back to previous page

98 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Windows Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Most older window units suffer from a few common problems, one of which is the perception that they are not (and cannot be made) energy efficient. If in sound condition, however, older windows can be energy-efficient windows.energy-efficient windows Other problems include deterioration of joints in the sash and casing from water intrusion. When these problems go unattended for some time, the window material, whether it is wood or metal, can reach the point where repair is infeasible or impractical.sashcasing Deteriorated sashes can be repaired by a competent carpenter who disassembles the unit and custom fits replacements to duplicate the original sashes. Another method is to rebuild the Commercial building in Red Wing shown before & after windows were restored deteriorated areas with an epoxy wood filler which can be painted or stained to match. The third method is to replace the window unit entirely.replace the window unit Consider all options before making changes to a structures windows. With the proper care, historic homes can retain their most distinguishing characteristic.

99 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Making Windows Energy Efficient Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Weatherstripping, storm windows and thermo-panes are three ways to make windows more energy efficient. For the first option, rolled brass weatherstripping works best. Its interlock design reduces air infiltration and can be installed with no alteration to the existing window. Other alternatives, such as plowing the sash for vinyl tracks, require removal of stops, modification of jambs, and reduction of the sash size. Once altered, the window can never be returned to its original state. Further, most jamb liners are manufactured in limited colors; their installation therefore intrudes on the original designs appearance.sash Storm window are common energy savers and were historically Back to Windows separate wooden units from screens, requiring seasonal installation and removal. During the 1950s, aluminum combination storm windows became popular. While they eliminated the seasonal chores, they were for the most part unaesthetic and significantly less energy efficient than wood. Vinyl storm and screen combinations later appeared but broke down structurally over time, unable to withstand high windloads and infrared radiation (sunlight). An alternative is wooden-surround combination windows which provide higher thermal efficiency, can be painted any color, and still eliminate seasonal labor. Most lumber yards and building supply centers catalogs have these units. An existing sash can also be retrofitted with a thermo-pane panel (usually two sheets of glass with a spacer). Installing a thermo-pane, however, increases the sashs weight and requires heavier balance weights and greater effort to open and close the window. Back to previous page

100 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Replacing Window Units Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page New window unit with true-divided lights rather than snap-in grids Replacing an entire window increases the potential for improper replacements, especially in historic buildings. The new unit must be identical in material, size and operation to the original. Some replacements require the unfortunate removal of trim or decorative cornices. Changes in size, however slight, are visible "red flags" that something has happened which is not Back to Windows complementary to the original design. Perhaps the most grievous error in window replacement is the elimination of character- defining muntins (divisions between individual panes) or their substitution with snap-in grids.muntins While such grids are intended to suggest divisions, they are either sandwiched between two panes of glass or attached by clips to the face of the window. When viewed at an oblique angle, the sandwiched grid tends to disappear, making the window seem like one large sheet of glass. The snap-in systems tend to break when removed for maintenance and allow dirt to collect between the grids and the glass. Sooner or later the grids are removed piecemeal and the building takes on a haphazard image. True-divided lights in replacement windows use actual muntins and avoid these aesthetic problems.

101 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Wood Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page When maintaining or restoring wood, it is important to avoid abrasive cleaners. Abrasion destroys lignin (the woody cellulose), causing a raised or "fuzzy" grain with ridges and voids. These ridges must be further abraded by sanding to restore the original smooth finish of milled lumber. If the surface is to be painted, the additional exposure significantly increases the quantity of paint required to re-establish adequate protection. Finished woodwork/millwork should never be sandblasted. Paint and/or varnish coatings should be removed by the gentlest chemical means, so as not to damage the wood. Wooden surfaces should never be "water- blasted at high pressure (with or without added grit) as the material will be damaged and the inner cavities saturated. Interior of the James J. Hill House, St. Paul, 1889

102 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Abrade: To wear away or scrape off a surface, especially by friction Acroteria: Projecting bases at the tops and ends of pediments, and the statues or ornaments that stand on top of them Arcade: A line of arches raised on columns or piers Back-priming: Painting the reverse side of a board or element before the board is applied to an exterior wall Baluster: Short, vertical posts used to support a stair handrail Balustrade: The roll forming the side of an Ionic capital; an entire railing system, including the top rail, balusters, and bottom rail Banding: One or more decorative wood strips or decorative inlay Bargeboard: A board, often elaborately carved, that hangs from the projecting end of the roof Bracket: A projection from a wall to support a weight that is independent of the wall Cames: Strips used in leaded glass windows to support individual pieces of glass Catenary curve: The curve made by a string hanging between two points Capital: The usually decorated top of a column Casing: The trim molding, framing or lining around a door or window Chalk: To become powdery Check: A small crack running parallel to the wood grain Chamfered: When a corner is cut away at an angle (e.g. 45°) to the edges Glossary of Terms Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Back to Text A-Cha Other Glossary Terms: Chi-FiFl-MoMu-ScSi-W

103 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Chinking: Material used to fill in a chink (crack) in a wall Colonnaded portico: A porch with a continuous row of columns. Corbel: A projection in masonry that supports an overhanging piece Corinthian: A type of Greek column (called an order) that is more slender and ornate than other Greek orders Cornice: A molded piece that crowns the structure it is affixed to Cresting: A roof or wall ornament that is highly decorative and often perforated Crib: A framework constructed of squared timbers, steel or concrete, used as a retaining wall or to provide support to the construction above Crown: The upper area of any architectural feature Curb: A low wall of wood, metal, or masonry built around an opening in the roof Curvilinear: Consisting of, or bounded by, curved lines Dentils: small square blocks along the underside of the eaves Daubing: A rough coating of plaster Delaminate: Separate or lose adhesion between layers in a laminated structure Doric: Type of column (order) that is sturdy in its proportions Double-hung: A window having two vertically sliding sashes Effloresce: To leak soluble salts, usually white, from mortar or concrete as moisture moves through it Finial: an ornament at the top of a gable, pinnacle, etc. Glossary of Terms Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Back to Text A-ChaChi-Fi Other Glossary Terms: Fl-MoMu-ScSi-W

104 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Flashing: A thin material used to prevent water penetration or to provide water drainage Foliated capital: The top of a column decorated with leaf-like designs Frieze/Friezeboard: A horizontal piece that connects the top of the wall to the cornice. Gambrel: A roof that has two pitches, or slopes on each side Garlands and swags: Festoons; carved ornaments in the form of garlands or flowers, tied at the ends with ribbons and suspended at both ends Hewn log: A log roughly shaped with an ax Hip roof: A roof that slopes upward on all four sides of a building Hood: A cover placed above an opening to shelter it Ionic: A column (order) having a spiral scroll (volute) at its capital, lighter than Doric and not as elaborate as Corinthian Jerkin: the end of a roof that incorporates the forms of gable and hip; also called a clipped gable Lath: A thin, narrow strip used as a base for walls and ceilings Lathe: The machine used to make turned ornament, such as spindles or posts Lintel: A horizontal beam over an opening that carries the weight of the wall above it Loggia: An arcaded or colonnaded porch attached to a larger structure Low-hipped roof: A roof that slopes upward at a slight angle on all four sides of a building Modillions: Small scroll-like brackets that support the upper part of the cornice of a column Glossary of Terms Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Back to Text A-Cha Other Glossary Terms: Chi-FiFl-MoMu-ScSi-W

105 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Muntin: The part of the window separating individual panes of glass Palladian: derived from the work of Andrea Palladio ( ), called the first great professional architect, who aimed to recapture the splendor of antiquity, particularly Roman. Palladian window: A three-part window, the center section of which is taller than the flanking side units. Parapet: A low, guarding wall at the edge of a terrace, roof, balcony, etc. Pediment: The triangular, gable end of the roof Pilaster: A shallow column that projects slightly from a wall. Portico: A porch or covered walk supported by columns Poultice: A soft, moist mass Quarter-sawn: Lumber cut so the rings intersect the wide side of the plank at an angle of 45 degrees or more Quoin: A hard, often decorated, stone or brick used to reinforce an external corner or edge of a wall Rafter tails: The part of the rafter that overhangs the wall Rain leader: Downspout Sash: Any framework of a window, moveable or fixed; it may slide in a vertical frame (as in double-hung windows) or pivot (as in a casement window) Scribe: A joint between two moldings, with one molding cut to the profile of the other Scroll-saw: A saw used for cutting thin boards into ornamental scrollwork Glossary of Terms Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Back to Text A-Cha Other Glossary Terms: Chi-FiFl-MoMu-ScSi-W

106 Minnesota Historical Society 345 Kellogg Blvd. West, St. Paul, MN Copyright © 2002 Hit escape key to close document Sill logs: Horizontal timber that rests on the foundation at the bottom of a framed structure Slake: Hydrating quicklime by adding water to the powder Spall: To fragment masonry by a blow or by weather conditions Stile: One of the upright pieces of a frame, such as the outer edge of a door or window sash Substrate: Something that serves as the underlying base or foundation Terrazzo: marble chips mixed with cement mortar, laid and polished Tracery: Curved, ornamental, openwork pattern, usually found in a Gothic window or similar opening Trimboard: The visible woodwork or moldings which protect joints, edges, or ends of other material Wire-cut brick: Brick that has been cut with a wire before firing Wracking: Twisting through irregular settlement Glossary of Terms Early Architecture of Minnesota Post Civil War Architecture Bric-a-Brac Styles Academic Revival Styles Styles of the Modern Era Home Page Back to Text A-Cha Other Glossary Terms: Chi-FiFl-MoMu-ScSi-W


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