Presentation on theme: "Bloodborne pathogens James R. Ginder, MS, NREMT,PI,CHES,NCEE"— Presentation transcript:
1Bloodborne pathogens James R. Ginder, MS, NREMT,PI,CHES,NCEE Health Education SpecialistHamilton County Health Department
2The Reader Will Be Able To... List three bloodborne pathogens.Explain how bloodborne pathogens are transmitted.Identify three ways to prevent development of a bloodborne pathogen.
3Introduction…Bloodborne Pathogen Standard applies to all employees with occupational exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials (OPIOM)
4Bloodborne pathogen standard 1910.1030 Covers all employees who could “reasonably anticipate" as the result of performing their job duties, to face contact with blood and other potentially infectious materials.
5Risk of Infection… Risk of infection depends on several factors: The pathogen involvedThe type/route of exposureThe amount of virus in the infected blood at the time of exposureThe amount of infected blood involved in the exposureWhether post-exposure treatment was takenSpecific immune response of the individual
6Bloodborne Pathogens… Bloodborne pathogens are microorganisms present in human blood which can infect and cause disease in people who are exposed to blood containing the pathogen.These microorganisms can be transmitted through contact with contaminated blood and body fluids.
7Who is at Risk… Sheriff, Police, Jail Staff • Health Care Staff Physicians, Nurses • First RespondersEMS • TherapistsLife GuardsCoroner & MorticiansTeachers/Child Care ProvidersHousekeepers
8How are diseases transmitted… Direct ContactBody FluidsIndirect ContactObjects With Body FluidsAirborneFrom The AirVector BorneAnimals And Insects
9How You become sick.. Is the disease present Must have entry into the bodyHow much of the disease is presentHow strong is your immune system
10Where are Bloodborne Pathogens Found? Blood productsSemenVaginal secretionsCerebrospinal fluidPleural fluid (or lung fluid)Synovial fluid (or fluid from your joints)Amniotic fluid (or uterine fluid)Peritoneal fluid (or fluid that fills your body cavity)Saliva in dental settingsAny body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood
11Main bloodborne pathogens and diseases of concern Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)Human Immunodeficiency
12Modes of Transmission Of All Bloodborne Pathogens… Sexual contactSharing of needlesFrom mothers to their babies at/before birthAccidental puncture from contaminated needles, broken glass, or other sharpsContact between broken or damaged skin and infected body fluidsContact between mucous membranes and infected body fluidsAnytime there is blood-to-blood contact with infected blood or body fluids
13HIV Fragile – survives only a few hours in dry environment Attacks the immune systemCDC estimates that more than one million people are living with HIV in the United StatesApproximately one in five (20 %) of those people living with HIV is unaware of their infection. (CDC)Most people will develop AIDSNo cure; no vaccine available yet
14Transmission Of HIV Sexual contact Sharing needles or drug equipment Pregnancy, childbirth and breast feedingContact with other body fluidsBody Piercing and Tattooing
16HIV Is NOT Spread Through… Casual ContactSalivaSweatSpitTearsAirInsects
17Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Having Two Of The 23Opportunistic Infections&White Blood Cell Below 200AIDSAcquiredDevelops after contact with HIVImmunodeficiencyA weakening of the immune systemSyndromeA group of signs and or symptoms caused by a disease
19Hepatitis b A virus that infects the liver HBV can live outside the body for 7 days90% of adults contracting the disease will recover and develop immunityUp to 10% of adults who contract the disease will not recover but have chronic HepatitisMay lead to chronic liver disease, liver cancer, and death
20Symptoms of Hepatitis B FeverFatigueLoss of appetiteNauseaVomitingAbdominal painDark urineClay-colored bowel movementsJoint painJaundice
21Hepatitis B Transmission Sex with an infected partnerInjection drug use that involves sharing needles, syringes, or drug equipmentChildren born to mothers who have Hepatitis BContact with blood or open sores of an infected personNeedle sticks or sharp instrument exposuresSharing items such as razors or toothbrushes with an infected person
22Hepatitis B Vaccine No risk of developing Hepatitis B from the vaccine The vaccine is 90%+ effectiveThe vaccine is given in three dosesDose # 1- Initial doseDose # Days after dose 1Dose #3- 4 months after dose 2
23Hepatitis CThe most common chronic bloodborne infection in the United StatesApproximately 3.2 million persons are chronically infected80% of people have no signs or symptomsMay remain undetected in the body for years
24Hepatitis C Most commonly occurs in people who have: Received blood transfusion before 1992Shared needles/drug equipmentTattoos/body piercingHIV +Children born to mothers who have Hepatitis CShared nail clippers and toothbrushesRisk of sexual transmission appears to be low
25Signs and Symptoms of Hepatitis C FeverFatigueDark urineClay-colored stoolAbdominal painLoss of appetiteNauseaVomitingJoint painJaundiceIn those persons who do develop symptoms, the average time period from exposure to symptom onset is 4–12 weeks (range: 2–24 weeks).
26Co-Infection… Person is infected with both HIV and Hepatitis C CDC estimates that 3,000,000 people are co-infected in the U.S.50%-90% of injection drug users are infected with Hepatitis C and HIV (CDC)A person who is co-infected may develop liver damage faster
27Transmission Potential Contact with another person’s blood or bodily fluid that may contain bloodMucous membranes: eyes, mouth, noseNon-intact skinContaminated sharps/needles
28Your Exposure Potential Accidental ReleasePost-Accident CleanupAdministering First-AidHandling of Returned ProductJanitorial or Maintenance WorkHandling of any Waste Products
29Universal Precautions Use of proper PersonalProtective Equipment (PPE)Treat all blood and bodily fluids as if they are contaminatedProper cleanup and decontaminationDisposal of all contaminated material in the proper manner
30Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Anything that is used to protect a person from exposureLatex or Nitrile glovesGogglesCPR mouth barriers,ApronsN95 mask & respirators
31PPE Rules to RememberAlways check PPE for defects or tears before usingIf PPE becomes torn or defective remove and get newRemove PPE before leaving a contaminated areaDo not reuse disposable equipment
32DecontaminationWhen cleaning up surfaces use diluted bleach solutions or other suitable commercial disinfectant (1:10)Do an initial wipe upSpray and allow it to stand for ten minutes, then wipe upDispose of all wipes in biohazard containersPPE should be removed and disposed of in biohazard containers
33Decontamination Procedures Use appropriate personal protective equipmentAbsorb grossly bloody materials with absorbent materials and place in a tied, red bagDecontaminate mop, broom or dust pan in a bleach solution
34Hand Washing Wash hands immediately after removing PPE Use a soft antibacterial soapA hand sanitizer can be used, but wash with soap and water as soon as possible afterward
361. Wet hands2. Use soap3. Lather, rub Sing Happy Birthdaytwice ( seconds)4. Rinse5. Towel or air dry hands6. Turn off water withtowel or sleeve
37Regulated Medical Waste… Liquid or semi-liquid blood or other potentially infectious materials and sharps.
38Regulated Waste…Must be placed in closable leak-proof container built to contain all content during handling, storing, transporting or shipping and be appropriately labeled or color-coded
39Signs and LabelsLabels must include the universal biohazard symbol, and the term “Biohazard” must be attached to:Containers of regulated biohazard wasteRefrigerators or freezers containing blood or OPIMContainers used to store, transport, or ship blood or OPIM
40Exposure Incident… A specific exposure to the Eyes Mouth Mucus membraneOr broken skinAs well as contact with blood or other potentially infectious material that results from the performance of an employee’s duties.
41Exposure Incident… Keep Calm Tell a supervisor ASAP If body fluid enters eyes or mouth, wash with water for 20 minutesIf body fluid comes in contact with broken or chapped skin or needle stick, wash with water and soap for 20 minutesWhat do you do?
47Ryan White LawThe Ryan White Law, mandates that the source patient test results be provided to the designated infection control officer of the employee involved in an exposure incident.
48IF IT IS WET AND NOT YOURS DO NOT TOUCH IT WITHOUT GLOVES!
49Question If you have any questions, contact: Christie Clare
50Course confirmationPrint, sign and return slide # 51 to Christie Clare
51BLOODBORNE PATHOGEN COURSE CONFIRMATION Lanesville Community School CorporationI have viewed the bloodborne pathogen course. I understand that if I have any questions about the course or have an exposure to blood or body fluids, I should contact the school nurse at extension 205._______________________ (Printed Name)_______________________ (Job Title)_______________________ (Signature)_______________________ (Date)*You must print, sign and return this confirmation to Christie Clare after viewing the course.