Presentation on theme: "Bloodborne pathogens James R. Ginder, MS, NREMT,PI,CHES,NCEE Health Education Specialist Hamilton County Health Department www.hamiltoncounty.in.gov."— Presentation transcript:
Bloodborne pathogens James R. Ginder, MS, NREMT,PI,CHES,NCEE Health Education Specialist Hamilton County Health Department
The Reader Will Be Able To... List three bloodborne pathogens. Explain how bloodborne pathogens are transmitted. Identify three ways to prevent development of a bloodborne pathogen.
Introduction… Bloodborne Pathogen Standard applies to all employees with occupational exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials (OPIOM)
Bloodborne pathogen standard Covers all employees who could reasonably anticipate" as the result of performing their job duties, to face contact with blood and other potentially infectious materials.
Risk of Infection… Risk of infection depends on several factors: –The pathogen involved –The type/route of exposure –The amount of virus in the infected blood at the time of exposure –The amount of infected blood involved in the exposure –Whether post-exposure treatment was taken –Specific immune response of the individual
Bloodborne Pathogens… Bloodborne pathogens are microorganisms present in human blood which can infect and cause disease in people who are exposed to blood containing the pathogen. These microorganisms can be transmitted through contact with contaminated blood and body fluids.
Who is at Risk… Sheriff, Police, Jail Staff Health Care Staff Physicians, Nurses First Responders EMS Therapists Life Guards Coroner & Morticians Teachers/Child Care Providers Housekeepers
How are diseases transmitted… Direct Contact –Body Fluids Indirect Contact –Objects With Body Fluids Airborne –From The Air Vector Borne –Animals And Insects
How You become sick.. Is the disease present Must have entry into the body How much of the disease is present How strong is your immune system
Where are Bloodborne Pathogens Found? Blood products Semen Vaginal secretions Cerebrospinal fluid Pleural fluid (or lung fluid) Synovial fluid (or fluid from your joints) Amniotic fluid (or uterine fluid) Peritoneal fluid (or fluid that fills your body cavity) Saliva in dental settings Any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood
Main bloodborne pathogens and diseases of concern Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Human Immunodeficiency
Modes of Transmission Of All Bloodborne Pathogens… Sexual contact Sharing of needles From mothers to their babies at/before birth Accidental puncture from contaminated needles, broken glass, or other sharps Contact between broken or damaged skin and infected body fluids Contact between mucous membranes and infected body fluids Anytime there is blood-to-blood contact with infected blood or body fluids
HIV Fragile – survives only a few hours in dry environment Attacks the immune system CDC estimates that more than one million people are living with HIV in the United States Approximately one in five (20 %) of those people living with HIV is unaware of their infection. (CDC) Most people will develop AIDS No cure; no vaccine available yet
Transmission Of HIV Sexual contact Sharing needles or drug equipment Pregnancy, childbirth and breast feeding Contact with other body fluids Body Piercing and Tattooing
HIV Is NOT Spread Through… Casual Contact Saliva Sweat Spit Tears Air Insects
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Having Two Of The 23 Opportunistic Infections & White Blood Cell Below 200 AIDS Acquired Develops after contact with HIV Immunodeficiency A weakening of the immune system Syndrome A group of signs and or symptoms caused by a disease
Liver Healthy Liver Liver Infected With Hep. B
Hepatitis b A virus that infects the liver HBV can live outside the body for 7 days 90% of adults contracting the disease will recover and develop immunity Up to 10% of adults who contract the disease will not recover but have chronic Hepatitis May lead to chronic liver disease, liver cancer, and death
Symptoms of Hepatitis B Fever Fatigue Loss of appetite Nausea Vomiting Abdominal pain Dark urine Clay-colored bowel movements Joint pain Jaundice
Hepatitis B Transmission Sex with an infected partner Injection drug use that involves sharing needles, syringes, or drug equipment Children born to mothers who have Hepatitis B Contact with blood or open sores of an infected person Needle sticks or sharp instrument exposures Sharing items such as razors or toothbrushes with an infected person
Hepatitis B Vaccine No risk of developing Hepatitis B from the vaccine The vaccine is 90%+ effective The vaccine is given in three doses –Dose # 1- Initial dose –Dose # Days after dose 1 –Dose #3- 4 months after dose 2
Hepatitis C The most common chronic bloodborne infection in the United States Approximately 3.2 million persons are chronically infected 80% of people have no signs or symptoms May remain undetected in the body for years
Hepatitis C Most commonly occurs in people who have: –Received blood transfusion before 1992 –Shared needles/drug equipment –Tattoos/body piercing –HIV + –Children born to mothers who have Hepatitis C –Shared nail clippers and toothbrushes Risk of sexual transmission appears to be low
Signs and Symptoms of Hepatitis C Fever Fatigue Dark urine Clay-colored stool Abdominal pain Loss of appetite Nausea Vomiting Joint pain Jaundice In those persons who do develop symptoms, the average time period from exposure to symptom onset is 4–12 weeks (range: 2–24 weeks).
Co-Infection… Person is infected with both HIV and Hepatitis C CDC estimates that 3,000,000 people are co-infected in the U.S. 50%-90% of injection drug users are infected with Hepatitis C and HIV (CDC) A person who is co-infected may develop liver damage faster
Transmission Potential Contact with another persons blood or bodily fluid that may contain blood Mucous membranes: eyes, mouth, nose Non-intact skin Contaminated sharps/needles
Your Exposure Potential Accidental Release Post-Accident Cleanup Administering First-Aid Handling of Returned Product Janitorial or Maintenance Work Handling of any Waste Products
Universal Precautions Use of proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Treat all blood and bodily fluids as if they are contaminated Proper cleanup and decontamination Disposal of all contaminated material in the proper manner
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Anything that is used to protect a person from exposure Latex or Nitrile gloves Goggles CPR mouth barriers, Aprons N95 mask & respirators
PPE Rules to Remember Always check PPE for defects or tears before using If PPE becomes torn or defective remove and get new Remove PPE before leaving a contaminated area Do not reuse disposable equipment
Decontamination When cleaning up surfaces use diluted bleach solutions or other suitable commercial disinfectant (1:10) Do an initial wipe up Spray and allow it to stand for ten minutes, then wipe up Dispose of all wipes in biohazard containers PPE should be removed and disposed of in biohazard containers
Decontamination Procedures Use appropriate personal protective equipment Absorb grossly bloody materials with absorbent materials and place in a tied, red bag Decontaminate mop, broom or dust pan in a bleach solution
Hand Washing Wash hands immediately after removing PPE Use a soft antibacterial soap A hand sanitizer can be used, but wash with soap and water as soon as possible afterward
How to Remove Gloves
1. Wet hands2. Use soap3. Lather, rub Sing Happy Birthday twice ( seconds) 4. Rinse 5. Towel or air dry hands 6. Turn off water with towel or sleeve
Regulated Medical Waste… Liquid or semi-liquid blood or other potentially infectious materials and sharps.
Regulated Waste… Must be placed in closable leak-proof container built to contain all content during handling, storing, transporting or shipping and be appropriately labeled or color-coded
Signs and Labels Labels must include the universal biohazard symbol, and the term Biohazard must be attached to: –Containers of regulated biohazard waste –Refrigerators or freezers containing blood or OPIM –Containers used to store, transport, or ship blood or OPIM
Exposure Incident… A specific exposure to the – Eyes – Mouth – Mucus membrane – Or broken skin As well as contact with blood or other potentially infectious material that results from the performance of an employees duties.
Exposure Incident… Keep Calm Tell a supervisor ASAP If body fluid enters eyes or mouth, wash with water for 20 minutes If body fluid comes in contact with broken or chapped skin or needle stick, wash with water and soap for 20 minutes What do you do?
Known Source If you know the source
UNKNOWN Source If you do not know who the source is
Sharps Log Any needle sticks
Ryan White Law The Ryan White Law, mandates that the source patient test results be provided to the designated infection control officer of the employee involved in an exposure incident.
IF IT IS WET AND NOT YOURS DO NOT TOUCH IT WITHOUT GLOVES!
Question If you have any questions, contact: –Christie Clare
Course confirmation Print, sign and return slide # 51 to Christie Clare
BLOODBORNE PATHOGEN COURSE CONFIRMATION Lanesville Community School Corporation I have viewed the bloodborne pathogen course. I understand that if I have any questions about the course or have an exposure to blood or body fluids, I should contact the school nurse at extension 205. _______________________ (Printed Name) _______________________ (Job Title) _______________________ (Signature) _______________________ (Date) *You must print, sign and return this confirmation to Christie Clare after viewing the course.