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MCRFD Infection Control Training Bloodborne and Airborne Pathogens.

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1 MCRFD Infection Control Training Bloodborne and Airborne Pathogens

2 Definitions Pathogen – Microorganisms that cause infections – such as viruses and bacteria.

3 Definitions Bloodborne pathogens – transmitted through blood or other potentially infectious material such as certain bodily fluids (semen, breast milk, etc.) or tissues. Airborne pathogens – transmitted by airborne droplets such as those from coughing, sneezing, or breathing close to someone’s face.

4 First Responder Concerns - Bloodborne
AIDS/HIV – can result from blood splash onto mucous membrane (eyes, nose, and mouth) or by blood coming into contact with open skin

5 First Responder Concerns - Bloodborne
Hepatitis B – transmitted same as HIV, but there is some risk in mouth to mouth rescue breathing Hepatitis C

6 First Responder Concerns - Airborne
Tuberculosis – spread when people with untreated TB germs in their lungs cough, sneeze or speak Meningitis – risk of on the job exposure minimal

7 Infected Blood Can Enter Your System through
Open Sores Cuts Abrasions Acne Any sort of damaged or broke skin such as sunburn or blisters Mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth

8 Four Diseases Most Likely to Encounter
HIV/AIDS Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Tuberculosis

9 HIV/AIDS HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus – attacks a type of white blood cells – T cells which is a part of the immune system. The body is left without a line of defense against infection. Person becomes susceptible to opportunistic diseases such as pneumonia. Initially no signs of having the virus.

10 HIV/AIDS The virus lives outside the body only a few hours.
Four modes of transfer – blood, semen, vaginal secretions, breast milk.

11 HIV/AIDS AIDS - Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome – Once a person is HIV positive and contracts an opportunistic disease, they are considered to have AIDS. There is no vaccination for HIV.

12 AIDS Statistics – United States
At the end of 2005, the CDC estimated there were 437,982 people living with AIDS. At the end of 2005, the CDC estimated there were between 1,039,000 and 1,185,000 living with HIV.

13 AIDS Statistics – United States

14 AIDS Statistics – United States

15 Hepatitis B (HBV) Potentially life threatening
CDC estimates there are about 280,000 HBV infections each year in the US Approximately 8,700 health care workers contract HBV each year, and about 200 will die.

16 Hepatitis B Symptoms Weight loss Malaise Nausea Vomiting Abdominal Pain Jaundice (yellow skin) Skin Rashes Aching Joints Incubation period for Hepatitis B ranges from 45 to 180 days with an average of 120 days. Some people will be asymptomatic, but can be carriers.

17 Concentration of Hepatitis B Virus in Various Body Fluids
High Moderate Low/Not Detectable blood semen urine serum vaginal fluid feces other fluids from wounds saliva sweat tears breastmilk

18 HIV vs. Hepatitis B HIV Hepatitis B
10 – 50 virus particles per ml of blood At lest 1,000,000 virus particles per ml of blood Virus lives outside the body for only a few hours Virus lives outside the body for up to 7 days Up to 100 times easier to catch than HIV No vaccination available Vaccinations available – 3 doses

19 Hepatitis C 3-4 million carriers Disease can incubate for decades
Most carriers will have some liver damage, but may not feel sick. Some may develop cirrhosis of the liver and liver failure which may take years to develop.

20 Hepatitis C Risk Factors
Long-term kidney dialysis Sex with multiple partners Tattooing or body piercing with shared needles or unsterilized equipment Intranasal cocaine use with shared straws People who received blood transfusions before 1992

21 Hepatitis C Risk Factors
Drug Users who share needles Babies born to mothers who have Hepatitis C Health care workers, dental workers, emergency workers, and others who have contact with blood and body fluid

22 Hepatitis C There is no vaccination against HCV
No treatment after exposure Prevention is imperative

23 Spread of Bloodborne Pathogens - Review
Puncture by a sharp object infected with the Virus Contaminated object or substance touches inflamed skin, acne, skin abrasion

24 Spread of Bloodborne Pathogens - Review
Touch a contaminated surface or substance and then touch your eyes, nose, mouth, or open wounds or inflamed skin

25 How to Reduce Your Risk Use your personal protective equipment, including: medical gloves, firefighter gloves, bunker gear, helmet, face shield, protective goggles, protective gowns. What you use depends on the incident. Do not eat, drink, smoke, or handle contact lens in areas where there is the possibility of exposure.

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