Presentation on theme: "MCRFD Infection Control Training Bloodborne and Airborne Pathogens."— Presentation transcript:
1MCRFDInfection Control TrainingBloodborne and Airborne Pathogens
2DefinitionsPathogen – Microorganisms that cause infections – such as viruses and bacteria.
3DefinitionsBloodborne pathogens – transmitted through blood or other potentially infectious material such as certain bodily fluids (semen, breast milk, etc.) or tissues.Airborne pathogens – transmitted by airborne droplets such as those from coughing, sneezing, or breathing close to someone’s face.
4First Responder Concerns - Bloodborne AIDS/HIV – can result from blood splash onto mucous membrane (eyes, nose, and mouth) or by blood coming into contact with open skin
5First Responder Concerns - Bloodborne Hepatitis B – transmitted same as HIV, but there is some risk in mouth to mouth rescue breathingHepatitis C
6First Responder Concerns - Airborne Tuberculosis – spread when people with untreated TB germs in their lungs cough, sneeze or speakMeningitis – risk of on the job exposure minimal
7Infected Blood Can Enter Your System through Open SoresCutsAbrasionsAcneAny sort of damaged or broke skin such as sunburn or blistersMucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth
8Four Diseases Most Likely to Encounter HIV/AIDSHepatitis BHepatitis CTuberculosis
9HIV/AIDSHIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus – attacks a type of white blood cells – T cells which is a part of the immune system. The body is left without a line of defense against infection. Person becomes susceptible to opportunistic diseases such as pneumonia.Initially no signs of having the virus.
10HIV/AIDS The virus lives outside the body only a few hours. Four modes of transfer – blood, semen, vaginal secretions, breast milk.
11HIV/AIDSAIDS - Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome – Once a person is HIV positive and contracts an opportunistic disease, they are considered to have AIDS.There is no vaccination for HIV.
12AIDS Statistics – United States At the end of 2005, the CDC estimated there were 437,982 people living with AIDS.At the end of 2005, the CDC estimated there were between 1,039,000 and 1,185,000 living with HIV.
15Hepatitis B (HBV) Potentially life threatening CDC estimates there are about 280,000 HBV infections each year in the USApproximately 8,700 health care workers contract HBV each year, and about 200 will die.
16Hepatitis B SymptomsWeight lossMalaiseNauseaVomitingAbdominal PainJaundice (yellow skin)Skin RashesAching JointsIncubation period for Hepatitis B ranges from 45 to 180 days with an average of 120 days.Some people will be asymptomatic, but can be carriers.
17Concentration of Hepatitis B Virus in Various Body Fluids HighModerateLow/Not Detectablebloodsemenurineserumvaginal fluidfecesother fluids from woundssalivasweattearsbreastmilk
18HIV vs. Hepatitis B HIV Hepatitis B 10 – 50 virus particles per ml of bloodAt lest 1,000,000 virus particles per ml of bloodVirus lives outside the body for only a few hoursVirus lives outside the body for up to 7 daysUp to 100 times easier to catch than HIVNo vaccination availableVaccinations available – 3 doses
19Hepatitis C 3-4 million carriers Disease can incubate for decades Most carriers will have some liver damage, but may not feel sick.Some may develop cirrhosis of the liver and liver failure which may take years to develop.
20Hepatitis C Risk Factors Long-term kidney dialysisSex with multiple partnersTattooing or body piercing with shared needles or unsterilized equipmentIntranasal cocaine use with shared strawsPeople who received blood transfusions before 1992
21Hepatitis C Risk Factors Drug Users who share needlesBabies born to mothers who have Hepatitis CHealth care workers, dental workers, emergency workers, and others who have contact with blood and body fluid
22Hepatitis C There is no vaccination against HCV No treatment after exposurePrevention is imperative
23Spread of Bloodborne Pathogens - Review Puncture by a sharp object infected with the VirusContaminated object or substance touches inflamed skin, acne, skin abrasion
24Spread of Bloodborne Pathogens - Review Touch a contaminated surface or substance and then touch your eyes, nose, mouth, or open wounds or inflamed skin
25How to Reduce Your RiskUse your personal protective equipment, including: medical gloves, firefighter gloves, bunker gear, helmet, face shield, protective goggles, protective gowns.What you use depends on the incident.Do not eat, drink, smoke, or handle contact lens in areas where there is the possibility of exposure.