2Pre-War Foreign Policy - US focused on domestic issues-extreme anti-war feelings“Merchants of Death”-Good Neighbor policy in Latin America-Neutrality Actsforbids arms sales to warring nations-1937 Roosevelt gives Quarantine speech
3Prelude to War: -Weak League of Nations US failed to join Inability to use force to stop aggressive nationsFrance- War damaged- Need for security from Germany- Strict enforcement of the Versailles Treaty- Construction of the Maginot LineLacarno Treaty- Pledge to keep the peace in Europe- Kellogg-Briand Pact signed later
6Rise of Fascism Combination of Dictatorship & Totalitarianism Political, social, economic, cultural controlMass appeal and propagandaNationalisticMilitaristicOpposed to communist idealsWanted control through forceAppealed to upper classes and existing class order
7Rise of Mussolini Black Shirts - Private army - Intimidation Mussolini gains in popularityCivil unrestMussolini appointed- head of gov’t- Dictatorship begins- Civil liberties repressed
8Rise of Nazi Party Adolph Hitler - German Workers Party - Opposition to SocialistsStorm Troopers or Brown ShirtsCritic of Weimar RepublicBeer hall Putsch fails –Hitler jailedWrites “Mein Kampf”- Nationalism- Racism- Lebensraum = living spaceHitler and Nazi Party seek to take power legally after Hitler’s prison term.
10Rise of J. Stalin Joseph Stalin - Communist Russia - Replaced V. Lenin Killed 20 million of his own in “Great Purge” for power.Totalitarian State.Five-Year Plans to industrial nationHated Fascism!Will sign a secret treaty with Hitler / Poland.When Hitler turns on USSR, they will join Allied Side…
12-League of Nations ineffective Japan’s Aggression1937-Japan invades Manchuria-League of Nations ineffective-Japan withdraws from the League-Japan begins the conquest of China- Wanted Natural Resources – Oil, timber, steel, etc….- Feel they are racially superior over all of Asia
14Hitler’s Pre-War Actions -Starts the Rearmament of Germany, 1933-violated Versailles Treaty-Withdrawal from the League of nations
15-Occupation of the Rhineland -Alliance with Italy-Annexation of Austria, 1938-goal of uniting all German people-Union was forbidden in the Versailles Treaty
16Austria & Czechoslovakia -Annexation of Austria, 1938-goal of uniting all German people-Union was forbidden in the Versailles Treaty
17Hitler's Move:-Czechoslovakian crisis 1938-Sudetenland—contained Germans-Munich Conference with other leaders of Europe-Appeasement policy-“Peace in our time”-Six Months later takes it all / Czechoslovakia
21Europe begins to prepare for war -Nazi-Soviet Pact, August 1939-Germany hopes to avoid a two front war-Each pledges neutrality in a war-Each gets a sphere of influence in eastern EuropeInvasion of Poland,Sept. 1st. 1939Captured country in six wks. France & GB declare war!
22-Polish question-Britain and France pledge protection-Polish Corridor-War begins on Sept. 1, 1939
23-France signs surrender, June 1940 Blitzkrieg Lightning warfare-heavy use of machinery and aircraft-quick victory over Poland-Phony War beginsMaginot LineSiegfried Line-Stalin attacks Finland, Hitler attacks Denmark, Norway, then Belgium-Invasion of France-Massive Allied evacuation at Dunkirk-France signs surrender, June 1940
24Battle of Britain - Germany controls most of Europe -Luftwaffe begin bombing of Britain over 100 days.-RAF defends British homelandNew Technology – Radar
26Winston Churchill speaking of the pilots of the RAF -”Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few”Winston Churchill speaking of the pilots of the RAF◊ Prime Minster of Great BritainGermany never launches invasion of Britain