Germany during the interwar… Was weak (economy and military and government) The government– called the “Weimer Republic”– had internal flaws –People within this government were anti- Semitic and nationalistic Germans were frustrated and resentful They were desperate for strong leadership and a change in their current situation
Enter…Adolf Hitler In the 1920s, Hitler published Mein Kampf (meaning “my struggle”) –It introduced Hitler to a wider audience –It introduced his political platform, in a way By the early 1930s, Hitler played a key role in the government In 1933, he was appointed Chancellor At first he lead a bi-partisan gov’t but then he began to change things…
Germany 1933-1939 During the 1930s, Hitler and his Nazi Party started to transform Germany He began building-up a strong military (militarism) –Disobeyed Treaty of Versailles –Pulled out of League of Nations Recruited people into his army –“Hitler Youth”, for example In 1938, Hitler annexed (peacefully) Austria. –What did this foreshadow?
Appeasement Meanwhile… Great Britain is trying to “appease” (calm down and even IGNORE) Germany British P.M. Neville Chamberlin, at first, made appeasement his official foreign policy “Appeasement is a diplomatic policy aimed at avoiding war by making concessions to an aggressor ”
Start of War in Europe WWII officially began when Hitler (Germany) invaded Poland in 1939
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact August 1939 - Hitler & Stalin agreed never to attack each other Neither planned to stick to this deal Divided Poland into two regions – west for Germany, East for Soviets September 1, 1939 - Germany invaded Poland WWII had begun Soviet Union also invaded Poland France & Britain declared war on Germany
Eventually Hitler turns on Stalin and invades the Soviet Union
Blitzkrieg = Lightning War Germany used “Lightning Warfare” at the start of the War Fast moving tanks and airpower Speed astonished their enemies
Blitzkrieg Germany used “Lightning Warfare” Fast moving tanks and airpower Speed astonished their enemies May 10, 1940 – Germany invades France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg By July 22, all had surrendered Meanwhile, Germany had “pounded” Britain by air in the Battle of Britain (July-Oct 1940)
Great Britain at War Even though the U.S. maintained NEUTRALITY…. We helped G.B.
Lend-Lease Act President Franklin Roosevelt wanted authority to lend equipment to G.B. and France Analogy? –“Lending a garden hose to a next-door neighbor whose house is on fire”
Meanwhile in Asia… Japan was building a militaristic empire Japan invades China in 1937 Japan is hungry for world domination just like Germany…
Japan v. The World Late 1930’s-1941 – Japan began to attack European colonies in Asia French Indochina Dutch East Indies British Singapore In response – Europe/US stopped selling iron ore, steel and oil to Japan Japan viewed embargo as act of aggression