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CH. 14 THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION CH. 14-1 INDUSTRY AND RAILROADS AMERICAN HISTORY.

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Presentation on theme: "CH. 14 THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION CH. 14-1 INDUSTRY AND RAILROADS AMERICAN HISTORY."— Presentation transcript:

1 CH. 14 THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION CH INDUSTRY AND RAILROADS AMERICAN HISTORY

2 NEW INDUSTRIES EMERGE The industrial revolution first began in the early 1800s with water and steam power Late 1800snew technologies help industry grow to new heights Electrical power replaced steam and water Faster transportation moved people and goods more cheaply Dramatic growth caused the late 1800s to be called the Second Industrial Revolution

3 MAKING STEEL 1850stwo inventors working on ways to make steel William Kelly (US) used a blast of hot air to purify molten iron and convert it to steel Henry Bessemer (GB) developed a similar method that he patented American steel meals used the Bessemer Process to work faster and cheaper

4 1873US turned out 115,000 tons of steel 1910output soared to 24,000,000 tons Steel helped turn US into a modern industrial economy Railroads found steel to be a superior material for locomotives and rails Construction companies could build bigger bridges and taller buildings

5 THE START OF THE OIL INDUSTRY Oil became another key commodity in the late 1800s for fuel and as a lubricant Mid 1800soil refined into kerosene for lamps Demand for kerosene skyrocketed EDWIN L. DRAKE hired to extract oil from the ground in PA August 1859Drakes crew hit a deep crevice in the rock Oil seeped up, men collected it in a bath tub First commercial oil well

6 WILDCATTERSoil prospectors January 1901– rich oil pocket found by Anthony F. Lucas at Spindletop Hill near Beaumont, TX Oil gushed 100 feet in the air for 9 days before the well was capped Spindletop kicked off an oil boom in TX >17 million barrels of oil in 1902 By 1904 production was down by 80%

7 First oil boom in TX lasted <20 years Worlds leading oil companies started at Spindletop Exxon Mobile, Gulf Oil, Texaco Oil refined into kerosene, gasoline, and other fuels These fuels would lead to revolutions in transportation and industry

8 RAILROADS EXPAND 1850s-railroads tracks crisscross the Northeast and reached into the southeast and Great Lakes area mileage of train tracks increased 500% Federal government gave railroads millions of acres of land Some land was sold to finance construction

9 Cheap steel helped railroads Steel: $50 per ton; late 1890s-- $12 per ton A TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD 1862Congress authorizes 2 companies to build rail lines to the west coast Companies raced to complete the project over the next 6.5 years

10 Union Pacific laid track westward from Omaha, NE Thousands of immigrants hired: Irish, German, English, African American, Native American Workers made progress because the land was flat or gently rolling hills Central Pacific laid track eastward from Sacramento, CA

11 These workers (Chinese) had tougher terrain They crossed deserts, blasted through granite mountains, and faced attacks from Native Americans May 10, 1869two rail lines meet at Promontory Summit, UT …Never has history recorded completion of work so magnificent…Dr. H.W. Harkness

12 THE EFFECTS OF EXPANSION Railroads promoted trade and provided jobs Demand for rails and railcars gave a boost to steel and manufacturing Railroads increased the settlement of the west Trip from East to West took just a few days

13 New towns sprung up along railroads Railroads led to the adoption of standard time Michigan had 27 local time zones and Wisconsin had 38 C.F. Dowd (NY school principal) proposed dividing the earth into time zones All towns in a time zone would have the same time

14 Railroads adopted standard time in 1883 Congress adopted standard time for the nation in 1918 THE END


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