Presentation on theme: "Industrial Innovations: (464-465) –Second Industrial Revolution: From 1865 to 1905 the United States experienced a surge of industrial growth –This new."— Presentation transcript:
Industrial Innovations: (464-465) –Second Industrial Revolution: From 1865 to 1905 the United States experienced a surge of industrial growth –This new era of industrial transformation began with numerous discoveries and inventions that significantly altered manufacturing, transportation, and the everyday lives of Americans
Industrial Innovations: (464- 465) –Coal and steam made possible the original Industrial Revolution in the United States. –Coal-fed steam engines powered factories. These factories in turn produced the goods that generated economic growth. –In the late 1800s an abundance of steel helped spur a second period of industrialization. –Steel was used in the construction of heavy machinery and mass- produced goods
Industrial Innovations: (464-465) –Steel: In the 1850s Henry Bessemer in Great Britain and William Kelly in the United States, both developed a method of steelmaking that burned off the impurities in molten iron with a blast of hot air –CALLED THE BESSEMER PROCESSS: it produced more steel in one day than the older techniques could turn out in one week –The increased availability of steel in the late 1800s resulted in its widespread industrial use. –The Railroad Industry began replacing iron rails with stronger, longer-lasting steel ones –Steel was used for: railroads, bridges, and buildings –Using steel to create a skeletal frame in buildings allowed architects to design larger, multistory buildings. –Steel is resistant to rust
Industrial Innovations: (464- 465 –Oil: (465) The process to refine oil affected industrial practices Edwin L. Drake: used a steam engine to drill for oil People thought he was nuts, so they called him Drakes Folly. Oil boom: prospectors referred to oil as black gold Elijah McCoy: invented a lubricating cup that fed oil to parts of a machine while it was running – your car McCoy received a patent – guarantee to protect an investors rights to make, use, or sell the invention.
Industrial Innovations: (464- 465 –Transportation: 466-468 Innovations in the steel and oil industries led to a surge of advances in the transportation industry –Brought Americans into closer contact with each other
Industrial Innovations: (464-465 –Railroads: 466-467 The countrys first transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869. –Project was finished when the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads were joined to form a single rail line from Omaha, Nebraska, to the Pacific Ocean –By 1900, almost ½ a dozen trunk lines – or major railroads, crossed the Great Plains to the Pacific Ocean. This huge railroad grid joined every state and linked remote towns to urban centers –George Westinghouse – developed a compressed air brake. It increased railroad safety. –Railroads: increased western settlement; stimulated urban growth and provided many of the Countrys jobs Network of railroad lines allowed companies to sell their products nationally
Transportation: (466-468) –The Horseless Carriage: (467) It was a self-propelled vehicle and forerunner to the automobile in 1700 –Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot mounted the steam engine to a 3 wheeled carriage –Nikolaus A. Otto: invented the first internal combustion engine powered by gasoline in 1876 –Only the wealthy could afford these forms of transportation
Transportation: (466-468) Airplanes: 467-468 –Orville and Wilbur Wright (The Wright Brothers) of Dayton, Ohio, developed one of the first working airplanes –December 17, 1903, in North Carolina, Orville Wright made the first piloted flight – 12seconds and 120 feet – in a powered plane
Communications: (468- 470) –Telegraph: (468) Samuel F. B. Morse developed the telegraph as a means of communication over wires with electricity – the Morse Code
Communications (468-470) –Telephone: 469 Alexander Graham Bell in 1876 patented the talking telegraph.
Communications (468- 470) –Typewriter (470) Christopher Sholes developed the typewriter in 1867. The typewriter gave more jobs to women who did clerical work and the main task was to type