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IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: The Age of Invention Section 2: The Rise of Big Business Section 3: Labor Strives to Organize 1 THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION.

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Presentation on theme: "IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: The Age of Invention Section 2: The Rise of Big Business Section 3: Labor Strives to Organize 1 THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION."— Presentation transcript:

1 IN THE MODERN ERA Section 1: The Age of Invention Section 2: The Rise of Big Business Section 3: Labor Strives to Organize 1 THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

2 IN THE MODERN ERA HOW DID THE DEVELOPMENT OF STEEL AND OIL REFINING AFFECT U.S. INDUSTRY? WHAT INNOVATIONS WERE MADE IN TRANSPORTATION? HOW DID INNOVATIONS IN COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY CHANGE BUSINESS PRACTICES AND DAILY LIFE IN THE UNITED STATES? HOW DID THOMAS EDISONS RESEARCH LABORATORY CHANGE AMERICAN LIFE? 2 READING/CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

3 IN THE MODERN ERA DURING THE LATE 1800S, NEW TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS LED TO THE GROWTH OF INDUSTRY, THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

4 IN THE MODERN ERA OIL REFINING RESULTED IN THE PRODUCTION OF KEROSENE FOR FUEL AND LIGHT ALLOWED THE MANUFACTURING OF OTHER PETROLEUM PRODUCTS HELPED MACHINERY OPERATE 4 Section 1: The Age of Invention

5 IN THE MODERN ERA OIL IN THE MID-1800S PEOPLE BEGAN TO REFINE OIL FOUND ON COASTAL WATERS AND LAKES FOR KEROSENE LAMPS. IN 1859 EDWIN L. DRAKE DRILLED FOR OIL IN PENNSYLVANIA, STARTING THE FIRST COMMERCIAL OIL WELL. WILDCATTERS, OR OIL PROSPECTORS, STRUCK OIL NEAR BEAUMONT, TEXAS, WHICH BEGAN THE TEXAS OIL BOOM. IT LASTED LESS THAN 20 YEARS, BUT OIL REMAINS BIG BUSINESS IN TEXAS TO THIS DAY. 5

6 IN THE MODERN ERA STEEL REFINING PROVIDED A STRONG, CHEAP SOURCE OF BUILDING MATERIAL ALLOWED EXPANSION OF THE RAILROAD INDUSTRY ALLOWED CONSTRUCTION OF MORE COMPLEX MACHINES AND TALLER BUILDINGS 6 Section 1: The Age of Invention

7 IN THE MODERN ERA STEEL IN THE 1850S A NEW METHOD MADE STEEL- MAKING FASTER AND CHEAPER AND BY 1910 THE U.S. WAS THE WORLDS TOP STEEL PRODUCER. STEEL HELPED TRANSFORM THE U.S. INTO A MODERN INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY. IT WAS USED TO MAKE BRIDGES, LOCOMOTIVES, AND TALLER BUILDINGS. FACTORIES USED STEEL MACHINERY TO MAKE GOODS FASTER. 7

8 IN THE MODERN ERA THE STEEL INDUSTRY 1850S – THE BESSEMER PROCESS ALLOWED STEEL TO BE PRODUCED CHEAPLY.BESSEMER PROCESS Henry Bessemer BESSEMER CONVERTE R, KELHAM ISLAND MUSEUM, SHEFFIEL D, ENGLAND (2002)

9 IN THE MODERN ERA Steel: Vertical Integration Raw Materials Example: Iron Ore Melting Hot air is pumped into a furnace, melting iron at 1600 degrees Celsius. (2,912 degrees F) Refining Impurities are removed and alloys are added from the molten metal through the use of a ladle. Casting The liquid steel is cast into billets and slabs. Rolling The billets and slabs are heated and rolled into finished products. 1 23 4

10 IN THE MODERN ERA TRANSPORTATION INNOVATIONS RAILROADS PROMOTED WESTERN SETTLEMENT, URBAN GROWTH, AND ECONOMIC PROSPERITY. AUTOMOBILES BECAME A SUBSTANTIAL INDUSTRY. AIRPLANES INTRODUCED NEW POSSIBILITIES. 10 Section 1: The Age of Invention

11 IN THE MODERN ERA TELEGRAPH SAMUEL F. B. MORSE INVENTED THE TELEGRAPH IN 1837, WHICH SENT MESSAGES INSTANTLY OVER WIRES USING ELECTRICITY. OPERATORS TAPPED OUT PATTERNS OF LONG AND SHORT SIGNALS THAT STOOD FOR LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET, CALLED MORSE CODE. THE TELEGRAPH GREW WITH THE RAILROADS, BECAUSE TRAIN STATIONS HAD TELEGRAPH OFFICES 11 INVENTORS REVOLUTIONIZE COMMUNICATION

12 IN THE MODERN ERA Two inventors devised ways to transmit voices by using electricity. Alexander Graham Bell patented his design first, in 1876. By 1900 there were more than a million telephones in offices and households across the country. 12

13 IN THE MODERN ERA MANY INVENTORS TRIED TO CREATE A WRITING MACHINE. CHISTOPHER LATHAM SHOLES, A MILWAUKEE PRINTER, DEVELOPED THE FIRST PRACTICAL TYPEWRITER IN 1867. HE LATER IMPROVED IT BY DESIGNING THE KEYBOARD THAT IS STILL STANDARD FOR COMPUTERS TODAY. BUSINESSES BEGAN TO HIRE WOMAN AS TYPISTS. 13 TYPEWRITER

14 IN THE MODERN ERA 14 THOMAS ALVA EDISON WAS ONE OF AMERICAS MOST FAMOUS INVENTORS. IN 1876 EDISON OPENED HIS OWN RESEARCH LABORATORY IN MENLO PARK, NEW JERSEY, WHERE HE HIRED ASSISTANTS WITH SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL EXPERTISE TO THINK CREATIVELY AND WORK HARD. EDISON SPENT HOURS TESTING IDEAS, AND HIS TEAM SOON INVENTED THE FIRST PHONOGRAPH AND A TELEPHONE TRANSMITTER. EDISON WAS THE FIRST TO COME UP WITH A SAFE ELECTRIC LIGHT BULB THAT COULD LIGHT HOMES AND STREET LAMPS. HE THEN UNDERTOOK A VENTURE TO BRING AN ELECTRICITY NETWORK TO NEW YORK CITY, AND IN 1882 HE INSTALLED A LIGHTING SYSTEM POWERED BY HIS OWN ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS SIMILAR TO ONES THAT WERE LATER BUILT ALL OVER THE U.S. EDISON AND HIS TEAM LATER INVENTED A MOTION PICTURE CAMERA AND PROJECTOR. IN ALL, HE HELD OVER 1,000 U.S. PATENTS. THOMAS ALVA EDISON

15 IN THE MODERN ERA COMMUNICATIONS INNOVATIONS THE TELEGRAPH ALLOWED BUSINESSES TO PLACE LONG-DISTANCE ORDERS QUICKLY. THE TELEPHONE BROUGHT BOTH BUSINESSES AND INDIVIDUALS TOGETHER. THE TYPEWRITER ALLOWED THE QUICK PRODUCTION OF LEGIBLE DOCUMENTS. 15 Section 1: The Age of Invention

16 IN THE MODERN ERA Thomas Edisons research laboratory THE LIGHT BULB THE PHONOGRAPH EARLY MOTION-PICTURE CAMERA 16 Section 1: The Age of Invention

17 IN THE MODERN ERA Objectives: WHAT ARGUMENTS DID BUSINESS LEADERS AND SOCIAL CRITICS MAKE ABOUT THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN BUSINESS? HOW DID BUSINESS STRATEGIES CHANGE DURING THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION? HOW DID ENTREPRENEURS TAKE ADVANTAGE OF CHANGES IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATION? HOW DID NEW METHODS OF MARKETING PRODUCTS CHANGE AMERICAN LIFE? 17 Section 2: The Rise of Big Business

18 IN THE MODERN ERA CONCERNING GOVERNMENTS ROLE IN BUSINESS BUSINESS LEADERS: – INDIVIDUALS SHOULD BE SELF-RELIANT. – BUSINESSES PROSPER MOST WITHOUT GOVERNMENT INTERFERENCE. – GOVERNMENT INTERFERENCE REDUCES SELF-RELIANCE. SOCIAL CRITICS: – FACTORY LIFE AND POOR WORKING CONDITIONS HARM WORKERS. – ALL CITIZENS SHOULD OWN ALL MEANS OF PRODUCTION. – GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE WOULD PREVENT THE BEST BUSINESSES FROM RISING TO THE TOP. 18 Section 2: The Rise of Big Business Section 2: The Rise of Big Business

19 IN THE MODERN ERA NEW BUSINESS STRATEGIES INCORPORATION VERTICAL INTEGRATION HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION 19 Section 2: The Rise of Big Business

20 IN THE MODERN ERA Entrepreneurs take advantage Carnegie created corporations and used vertical integration to dominate the steel industry. Rockefeller created corporations and used horizontal integration to dominate the oil industry. Vanderbilt bought and consolidated many railroad lines. Westinghouse and Pullman introduced and controlled new railroad technologies. 20 Section 2: The Rise of Big Business

21 IN THE MODERN ERA NEW MARKETING METHODS USE OF BRAND NAMES AND SPECIAL PACKAGING ADVERTISING DEPARTMENT STORES CATALOGS CHAIN STORES 21 Section 2: The Rise of Big Business

22 IN THE MODERN ERA Objectives: WHY DID SOME AMERICANS WANT TRUSTS TO BE BANNED, AND HOW DID THE GOVERNMENT RESPOND? WHAT TYPES OF WORKING CONDITIONS DID LABORERS FACE IN THE NEW AGE OF RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION? HOW DID THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR ATTEMPT TO ADDRESS THE NEEDS OF MANY WORKERS? HOW DID BUSINESSES REACT TO STRIKES IN THE LATE 1800S, AND HOW DID THIS AFFECT UNIONS? 22 Section 3: Labor Strives to Organize

23 IN THE MODERN ERA THE BANNING OF TRUSTS DESIRED BECAUSE OF BELIEF THAT WITHOUT COMPETITION, LARGE MONOPOLIES WOULD HAVE NO REASON TO MAINTAIN QUALITY OR KEEP PRICES LOW NOT ACCOMPLISHED DESPITE PASSAGE OF THE SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT 23 SECTION 3: LABOR STRIVES TO ORGANIZE

24 IN THE MODERN ERA Working conditions LOW PAY LONG HOURS UNSAFE ENVIRONMENTS POSSIBILITY OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION 24 Section 3: Labor Strives to Organize

25 IN THE MODERN ERA The Knights of Labor INCLUDED BOTH SKILLED AND UNSKILLED WORKERS INCLUDED WOMEN AND, LATER, AFRICAN AMERICANS ORGANIZED STRIKES, MARCHES, AND DEMONSTRATIONS EDUCATED AND ORGANIZED WORKERS 25 Section 3: Labor Strives to Organize

26 IN THE MODERN ERA Strikes in the late 1800s Businesses responded with blacklists, yellow- dog contracts, lockouts, and violence. Business tactics hurt many unions and caused skilled workers to break away from unskilled ones. 26 Section 3: Labor Strives to Organize


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