2Chapter 15: The Second Industrial Revolution Section 1: The Age of Invention
3Industrial Innovations From 1865 to 1905 the United States experienced a surge of industrial growth, known as the Second Industrial Revolution.Coal and steam had made the original Industrial Revolution possible.Steam engines (fueled by coal)powered the factories.
4Industrial Innovations In the late 1800s an abundance of steel contributed to a second period of industrialization.
5SteelBefore the mid-1800s, the process of converting iron ore into steel was too expensive to be used practically.
6SteelIn the 1850s Henry Bessemer from Great Britain developed a method of steelmaking that burned off the impurities in molten iron with a blast of hot air.
7SteelThis is known as the Bessemer Process, and it could produce more steel in one day than the older techniques could turn out in one week.American steel productionskyrocketed from about15,000 tons in 1865 to more than28 million tons by 1910.
8Steel The production of steel required iron ore. Barges and steamers carried unprocessed iron ore from the Midwest through the Great Lakes.Cities such as Gary, Indiana, Cleveland, OH, and Pittsburgh, PA became major centers for steel manufacturing.
9SteelThe increased availability of steel in the late 1800s resulted in widespread industrial use.The railroad industry began replacing iron rails with stronger, longer-lasting steel ones.Builders began to use steel in the construction of bridges and buildings.
10OilBy the late 1850s, chemists and geologists had made significant progress in developing a process to refine crude oil, making it useable.Edwin L. Drake used a steam engine to drill for oil near Titusville, PA in 1859.After oil had been successfully drilled by Drake, other prospectors hurried to dig their own wells.
11OilThere was an oil boom in western PA, with many referring to oil as “blackgold.”In 1901 a group led byengineer Anthony F. Lucasstruck oil in Texas, leading tothe Texas oil boom.
12OilKerosene was the primary product of refining oil, but by 1880 refiners had developed other petroleum products.Today, oil is one of the world’s most important resources.
13TransportationInnovations in the steel and oil industries led to a surge of advances in the transportation industry.
14Railroads As steel production increased, prices dropped dramatically. The availability of cheaper steel encouraged railroad companies to lay thousands of miles of new track.
15RailroadsThe rapid increase of railroad lines led to a more efficient network of rail transportation.Prior to the Civil War, most railroads in the U.S. were short – they averaged about 100 miles in length.
16RailroadsThe country’s first transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869.It was finished when the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific Railroads were joined to create a single rail line from Omaha, Nebraska to the Pacific Ocean.Railroad tycoon Leland Stanford hammered in the last spike at Promontory, Utah.
18RailroadsBy 1900 almost a half-dozen trunk lines, or major railroads, crossed the Great Plains to the Pacific coast.George Westinghouse developed a compressed-air brake, which enabled the locomotive and all of its cars to stop at the same time.
30Communications Telegraph In 1837, Samuel F. Morse developed a means of communicating over wires with electricity.People used Morse’s dot-and-dash code to “talk” over the line.
31TelegraphTelegraphs sent information for businesses, the government, newspapers, and private citizens.By 1866, Western Union had more than 2,000 telegraph offices.
32TelephoneThe “talking telegraph” was patented by Alexander Graham Bell in March 1876.
33TelephoneBy the end of the 1800s more than a million telephones had been installed in American offices and homes.Telephone companies employed many workers, mostly women, as switchboard operators.
34Typewriter Christopher Sholes developed the typewriter in 1867. Sholes’ keyboard design, with only a few changes, is still used today in typewriters and computers.The invention led to a rise in clerical jobs, mainly occupied by women.
35Edison and Menlo Park Thomas Alva Edison was a pioneer of communications technology.Edison and his fellow researchers made significant discoveries and advances in electricity, light bulbs, phonographs, and early motion-picture cameras.
36EdisonIn 1876 he opened a workshop in Menlo Park, New Jersey, where he assembled a team of researchers.Edison and his researchers invented the phonograph in 1877 andthe light bulb in 1879.
37EdisonIn 1882 Edison opened one of the world’s first power plants in New York City.When he died, Edison held more than 1,000 patents.
38EdisonHow did the inventions created by Thomas Edison’s research laboratory affect daily life?