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Chapter 19, Section 1 The Second Industrial Revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19, Section 1 The Second Industrial Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 19, Section 1 The Second Industrial Revolution

2 Second Industrial Revolution The first industrial revolution started in America in the early 1800s The first major industry was in the New England states producing textiles (cloth) It brought workers to cities to work in factories Technological advances led to the second industrial revolution in the late 1800s By the mid-1890s the US was the world’s industrial leader

3 Bessemer Process Who? – Henry Bessemer invented it and Andrew Carnegie dominated the steel industry using it What? – a way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove the impurities When? – mid-1850s Where? – US (particularly PA) Why important? – Story of US: Carnegie

4 Factors Affecting Industrial Growth Greater ability to use natural resources A growing population and rising immigration created large work force and more consumers of goods Inventions and innovations (like the Bessemer process and the assembly line) increased production Increasing business investment (capital from business people and the sale of stock) Govt. policies that assisted businesses (such as protective tariffs and providing land grants to railroad companies)

5 Impact of Railroads on Society and the Economy Manufacturers sent products to market faster Cities where rail lines crossed grew rapidly Spurred western growth and development Employed large numbers of people in the railroad industry Sleeping cars improved passenger service Refrigerated cars increased the nation’s food supply

6 Production of Oil In the 1850s chemists invented a way to convert crude oil into kerosene, which was then used in cooking, heating, and lighting Edwin Drake proved it was possible to drill for oil underground in Titusville, PA

7 Patents Patent – a document that gives inventors exclusive rights to make or sell inventions (or sell use of them) for a set amount of time Patents allow inventors to protect their inventions from being manufactured by others so they alone can profit off of their ideas POTATO MASHER PATENT DRAWING

8 Thomas Edison Who? – inventor who was interested in the uses of electricity What? – had over 1,000 patents including the electric light bulb, phonograph, and motion picture projector When? – late 1800s Where? – research lab in Menlo Park, NJ Why important? –

9 Henry Ford Who? – businessman who produced cars What? – first to use the assembly line in manufacturing when producing the Model T car (1908) When? – early 1900s Where? – Detroit, MI Why important? –

10 Wright Brothers Who? – brothers Orville and Wilbur who were inventors What? – built a light- weight airplane with a small gas engine that made the first piloted flight When? – 1903 Where? – Kitty Hawk, NC Why important? –

11 Alexander Graham Bell Communication over distances improved with Bell’s invention of the telephone Previously they relied on the telegraph Telegraph carried only written messages and required trained people to operate it Anyone could use the telephone

12 Other Inventions Important in the Late 1800s Sewing machine – Elias Howe and Isaac Singer Typewriter – Christopher Sholes (of Milwaukee) Air-brake for trains – George Westinghouse (allowed trains to have more cars to ship more goods and made them safer) Power system to send electricity across many miles – George Westinghouse


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