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Human relationships: Interpersonal relationships D. S. Junglas.

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Presentation on theme: "Human relationships: Interpersonal relationships D. S. Junglas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human relationships: Interpersonal relationships D. S. Junglas

2 Origins of Attraction Sternberg’s triangular theory of love (

3 Biological level of analysis Evolutionary theories – attraction to procreate E.g. Animal kingdom Hormones change as a relationship progresses Passionate love to intimate relationship Evolutionary explanations Biochemistry doesn’t explain origins of attraction but rather the process

4 Hormones Oxytocin Released in men & women (e.g. through touching) Feelings of attachment increase Vasopressin More present in males Long-term commitment Image source: Image source: http://56ab8f3ba9bdd574fe36- molecule-oxytocin-banner.jpg

5 The dirty shirt study (Wedekind 1995) Body odor affecting amount of attraction Genes related to immune system (MHC) for mate choosing MHC – Major histocompatability complex Analysed 49 women, 44 men Range of MHC genes

6 Procedure & results Men given clean shirt and to wear for next two nights Instructed to avoid scented aftershaves, soap, etc. Shirts packed away with a sniffing hole Women returned when at midpoint of menstrual cycle (peaked sense of smell) Presented with boxes – some with similar MHC scents, dissimilar and control shirts Women asked to rate scent (pleasant – unpleasant) Image source: Women preferred scent of shirt from men with dissimilar MHC Reversed if taking oral contraceptives

7 Cognitive level of analysis Perception and social cognition People perceive someone similar to themselves as attractive More attracted to people similar to ourselves E.g. personality, social class, religion, attitudes, intelligence, cultural background Shared interests Attraction-similarity model Perceptions of relationship

8 The role of self-esteem in relationship formation (Kiesler and Baral 1970) Self-esteem affecting partner selection Self perception through similar partner choice

9 Procedure & results Group of men answered IQ test Given fictitious scores Two groups Group 1 – told they achieved high scores Group 2 – told they achieved low scores Men told to repeat test in near future While in waiting room, attractive female enters Willingness to engage with her was recorded Men with high scores engaged with women in waiting room faster Self-esteem boost from receiving the test results

10 Sociocultural level of analysis Social and cultural norms are important to consider when determining who becomes partners Contact and interaction is important to consider when determining attraction Positive interaction – positive attraction Culture norms – formation and maintenance of relationships

11 Buss (1994) Cross-cultural study Relationships questionnaire – mate selection Over 10,000 responses received 37 cultures in total Similarities 36/37 – women preferred financial prospects higher than males did 37/37 – men preferred younger partners, women preferred older partners

12 Differences Different rankings of importance of love in a relationship USA – Love = 1 st Iran – Love = 3 rd Nigeria – Love = 4 th China – Love = 6 th South Africa (Zulu) – Love = 7 th

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