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Sex, Love, and Gender Adapted from: David Myers Psychology 8th Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Sex, Love, and Gender Adapted from: David Myers Psychology 8th Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sex, Love, and Gender Adapted from: David Myers Psychology 8th Edition

2 Gender XX=girl, XY=boy Everyone receives X chromosome from mother
A sex gene present in both males and females Men receive Y chromosome from father A single sex gene which causes testes to develop Hormones Testosterone – principal male hormone, which is produced heavily due to the Y chromosomes Females also have testosterone, but less of it. Estrogen - hormone secreted in greater amounts by females than by males

3 Gender Seven weeks after conception, you were anatomically indistinguishable from someone of the other sex.

4 Gender differences surface early
Boys play in large groups with an activity focus - competitive Girls have smaller groups, often only one friend – imitative of social relationships As teens, women spend more time with friends and less time alone. When on the computer, spend less time playing games and more time ing friends

5 Women are more interdependent
They tend and befriend, turning to others for support Use conversation to explore relationships while men use it to communicate solutions. Express emotions freely Are more concerned with making connections. Make 63% of telephone calls and stay on the phone longer. When wanting understanding and someone with whom to share worries and hurts, both sexes usually turn to women

6 When compared to men, women are more likely to…
Be open to spirituality Be open and responsive to feedback Dream equally of men and women Become sexually re-aroused immediately after orgasm Smell faint odors Be offered help in some situations

7 Men Are more concerned with viewing self as individuals
Are more skeptical Admit to more aggression than women (ratio for murderers 9:1) Male answer syndrome - a phenomenon in which males are more likely to hazard answers rather than admit they don’t know.

8 Leadership between the Sexes
Leadership tends to go to males – occupy 84% of seats in world’s government Men tend to be more directive, even autocratic Women tend to be more democratic, more welcoming of subordinate’s participation in decision making Men more likely to utter opinions Women more likely to express support Men act powerful: talk assertively, interrupt, initiate touching, smile less, and stare Gender differences in power lessen with maturity Middle age women become more assertive Men become more empathic

9 Risks and Vulnerabilities between Sexes
Women more vulnerable to… Depression and anxiety Eating disorders (ten times greater risk than men) Men more likely to… Commit suicide or suffer alcoholism Have autism, color-blindness, hyperactivity (as children) Have antisocial personality disorder (as adults)

10 Intimacy As friends, women are more intimate than men; they talk more often and more openly Men enjoy doing activities side by side, while women would rather talk face-to-face.

11 Attractiveness Varies by Culture
The current concept of attractiveness in Kenya, Morocco, and Scandinavia

12 Research of sexual habits - Kipling
Alfred Kipling conducted the first recorded sexual “survey,” which was very shocking to the conservative 1940s audience Most of men and nearly half the women reported having premarital sex Most women and virtually all men reported having masturbated

13 Research of Physiology of Sex in 1960s – Masters and Johnson
Recorded the physiological responses of volunteers who masturbated or had intercourse 382 female and 312 male volunteers A typical sample, consisting only of people able and willing to display arousal and orgasm while being observed in a laboratory

14 Research of Physiology of Sex in 1960s – Masters and Johnson
Monitored or filmed more than 10,000 sexual “cycles Sexual Response Cycle - the four stages of sexual responding - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution During resolution phase, male enters a refractory period - a resting period during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

15 Disorders Sexual disorders - a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning, such as premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, and orgasmic disorder Most women who experience problems relate it to their emotional relationship with their partner, not to the physical aspects Testosterone-replacement patch restored sexual activity, arousal, and pleasure for over 500 naturally menopausal women

16 Hormonal Surges Fluctuations in male hormones are partly a response to sexual stimulation. Men’s testosterone levels rose with social arousal (talking to another man), but they rose much higher when talking with a female If hormonal surge is not allowed, the normal development of sex characteristics and sexual desire does not occur Example: during the 1600s and 1700s, pre-pubertal boys were castrated to preserve their soprano voices for Italian opera

17 Sexual Motivation

18 Pornography Sexually explicit materials are sold mostly to men
Surprisingly, most women (at least the less inhibited women to volunteer to participate in the studies) report or exhibit nearly as much arousal to the same stimuli With repeated exposure, the emotional response to any erotic stimulus often lessens At the time mildly erotic stimulus: When women’s hemlines first reached the knee, an exposed leg A modest two-piece swimsuit, Movie scenes of a mere kiss

19 Adverse effects of sexually explicit material
Images of sexually attractive women and men may lead people to devalue their own partner and relationships Viewing X-rated sex films tends to diminish people’s satisfaction with their own sexual partners Researchers suspect that reading or watching erotica may create expectations that few men and women can fulfill

20 Fantasies and Preferences
About 95% of both men and women say they have had sexual fantasies However, men (whether gay or straight) fantasize about sex more often, more physically, and less romantically They also prefer less personal and faster-paced sex content in books and videos

21 Adolescent Sexuality Rates
3% of American women born before 1900, had premarital sex by age 18 50% of US high school students in 1995 Only 2.5% of over 4 thousand unmarried Chinese students entering Hong Kong’s six universities

22 Teen Pregnancy Compared with European teens, American teens have…
lower rates of intercourse and contraceptive use higher rates of teen pregnancy and abortion Only one-third of sexuality active male teens use condoms consistently

23 Why teens do not use contraceptives
Ignorance Most teens overestimate their peers’ sexual activity, which may influence their own behavior Guilt related to sexual activity 72% of American girls aged who have had sex said they regretted it Not wanting to appear deliberately sexual or promiscuous, teens may hesitate to carry and produce a condom Minimal communication about birth control Uncomfortable discussing contraception with parents, partners, and peers

24 Why teens do not use contraceptives
Alcohol use Sexually active teens are typically alcohol-using teens Those who use alcohol prior to sex are less likely to use condoms Alcohol tends to break down normal restraints, a phenomenon well known to sexually coercive males. Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity According to Planned Parenthood, TV and movie portrayals of unsafe sex without consequence amounts to a campaign of “sex disinformation”

25 Fast spread of STIs Over the course of year, Pat has sex with 9 people, each of whom has sex with 9 other people, who in turn have sex with 9 others. How many “phantom” sex partners will Pat have? 511 - more than five times the estimate given by the average student Given these odds, the rapid spread of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) is not surprising

26 The teens who delay sex are found to
Have a higher than average intelligence Be actively religious Have a father presence Participate in volunteer work

27 Sexual Orientation Statistics
Sexual Orientation - an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex (homosexuality) or the other sex (heterosexual) 3-4% of men and 1-2% of women are gay Most homosexual people report not becoming aware of same sex attraction during puberty and not thinking of themselves as gay until age 20 Sexual orientation is neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed Sexual orientation in some ways is like handedness: most people are one way, some the other. A very few are truly ambidextrous

28 Orientation Statistics - continued
Women’s sexual orientation tends to be less strongly felt and potentially more fluid and changeable than men’s More likely to feel bisexual attractions Lesbian women are more likely to enter a committed long-term love relationship compared to gay men Gays suffer elevated rates of depression and risk of suicide attempts Mental health professionals are now more accepting of sexual orientation They dropped homosexuality from their list of “mental illnesses

29 Orientation Statistics - continued
Homosexuality appears to run in families Fraternal birthorder effect - men who have older brothers somewhat more likely to be gay Odds of homosexuality are 3% among first sons Increase to 4% among second sons and over 5% for third sons Homosexual behavior does not indicate homosexual orientation Even in tribal cultures where homosexual behavior is expected of all boys before marriage, heterosexuality still prevails

30 Homosexual animals Some degree of homosexuality seems to be a natural part of the animal world Penguins, Wendell and Cass, spent several years as devoted same-sex partners at the New York Aquarium At least occasional same-sex relations have be observed in several hundred species, including grizzlies, gorillas, monkeys, flamingos, and owls

31 Physiological Differences between Homosexuals and Heterosexuals
A gay scientist, LeVay postulated that homosexuality is not just psychological. The physiological effects were shown in sections of the hypothalamus The cell cluster was reliably larger in heterosexual men than in women and homosexual men. Although, he did admit that sexual behavior patterns may have influenced the brain’s anatomy

32 Spatial Abilities Can you tell which of the four figures can be rotated to match the target figure at the top? Straight males tend to find this an easier task than do straight females, with gays and lesbians intermediate

33 Acceptance of Homosexuality
Acceptance is more common among women, among those with a gay or lesbian friend or relative, and among younger adults Among entering collegians, support for laws prohibiting homosexual relationships has plummeted since 1987 This is not a result of liberalization of all sex-related attitudes. For example from 1973 to 2000 agreement that extramarital sex is “always wrong” increased from 69.6% to 79.4%

34 New biological research is double edged sword
Alleviates parent’s concerns about their children being influenced by gay teachers and role models Raises the possibility that genetic markers of sexual orientation could someday be identified through fetal testing, and a fetus could be aborted simply for being predisposed to an unwanted orientation

35 Love Two types of love Temporary passionate love
More enduring companionate love

36 Passionate love Passionate love - an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship Theory of emotion: Emotions have two ingredients - physical arousal plus cognitive appraisal Arousal from any source can enhance one emotion or another College men were aroused by fright and then introduced to an attractive woman Those who were stirred up attributed some of that arousal to the woman they were talking to and felt more attracted to her Adrenaline makes the heart grow fonder

37 Companionate love Companionate love - the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined Happens as passionate love matures Recognizing the short duration of passionate love, some societies have deemed such feelings an irrational reason for marrying In Non-Western cultures, people rate love less important for marriage and have lower divorce rates

38 Keys to Healthy Relationship
Equity - a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it When a couple shares decision making, their chances for sustained and satisfying companionate love are good Self-disclosure - revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others

39 Marriage Marriage bonds are more likely to last when couples marry after age 20 and are well educated Twice the rate of divorce from 40 years ago Reflecting women’s lessened economical dependence on men and people’s rising expectations US and Canada almost have 1 divorce per 2 marriages

40 Marriage Adult bonds of love are most satisfying and enduring when marked by a similarity of interests and values, a sharing of emotional and material support, and intimate self-disclosure Couples who cohabited before marriage had higher rates of divorce and marital dysfunction. 40% of married adults report being “very happy,” compared to 23% of unmarried adults

41 Successful Couples Have a five-to-one ratio of positive to negative interactions Positive: smiling, touching, complimenting, and laughing Negative: sarcasm, criticism, and insults Learn to fight fair and state their feelings without insulting Steer conflict away from chaos “I’ll just be quiet for a moment and listen” “I know it’s not your fault”

42 Children When children begin to absorb time, money, and emotional energy, the couple’s marital satisfaction may decline Especially, among women who tend to carry the traditional burden of doing chores at home. When children leave home, empty nest is typically a happy place Couple experience a “postlaunch honeymoon”

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