2 Invitational Office Hour Invitations, by Student Number for January 28 th 11:30-12:30, 3:30-4:30 Kenny 2517 33602103 42005090 65354086 69304061 70312061
3 Romantic Relationships: 1. What factors determine relationship satisfaction for females and males? (continued) 2. Do lesbian and gay romantic relationships differ from heterosexual romantic relationships?
4 By the end of today’s class, you should be able to: 1. identify factors that influence relationship satisfaction among males and females. 2. explain the greater “transmission of affect” from males to females in romantic relationships. 3. compare and contrast the characteristics of romantic relationships among heterosexuals and homosexuals.
5 What factors determine relationship satisfaction for females and males? (continued) 1.Gender roles: (continued) Antill (1983) Assessed marital “happiness” as a function of spouses’ scores on the Bem Sex Role Inventory.
6 Found that: (a) Spouses with similar scores on the BSRI (e.g., AA, FF) reported greater marital happiness than spouses with “complementary” scores (MF, AU) on the BSRI. (b) MF couples (i.e., traditional couples with a masculine male and feminine female) reported less marital happiness than most other pairings (exceptions: UM, UA, MU).
7 (c) FF couples reported the highest levels of marital happiness. (d) Among females and males, femininity was positively correlated with marital happiness; masculinity was not correlated with marital happiness:
8 r between wife’s femininity and her own marital happiness=.33 r between husband’s femininity and wife’s marital happiness=.31 r between wife’s femininity and husband’s marital happiness=.28 r between husband’s femininity and his own marital happiness=.42
9 2.Equity: Research indicates that equity influences relationship satisfaction among males and females: Males and females who feel that they are “over- benefitted” or “underbenefitted” in their relationship report less satisfaction than those who feel that their relationship is equitable (Cahn, 1992).
10 3.Relationship standards: Research indicates that unfulfilled standards influence relationship satisfaction among females and males. Identified 7 categories of relationship standards among females and males. Vangelisti and Daly (1997) Although sex differences did not emerge with respect to the importance of these standards, females were more likely than males to report that their relationships did not fulfill the standards.
11 Relationship StandardDescription Relational identitySpending time together, being known as a couple. IntegrationAccepting each other’s weaknesses, recognizing there is conflict in relationships. Affective accessibilitySelf-disclosure, expressing feelings. Trust*Being faithful, committed, honest Future orientationSharing similar plans for the future. Role fulfillmentEach person fulfills his or her roles. FlexibilityAdapting to one another. Relationship Standards (Vangelisti & Daly, 1997) *Only standard for which females reported greater importance than males. Only standard for which sex differences in fulfillment did not emerge.
12 Importance and Fulfillment of Relationship Standards for Males and Females (Vangelisti & Daly, 1997)
13 4.Male vs. female characteristics: Research indicates that the characteristics of males influence relationship satisfaction to a greater extent than the characteristics of females: Husbands’ communication skills are related to wives’ marital satisfaction; wives’ communication skills are not related to husbands’ marital satisfaction (Cordova, Gee, & Warren, 2005).
14 Husbands’ knowledge of sexual preferences is relat- ed to wives’ sexual satisfaction; wives’ knowledge of sexual preferences is not related to husbands’ sexual satisfaction (Purnine & Carey, 1997).
15 Husbands’ depression scores are related to wives’ marital satisfaction; wives’ depression scores are not related to husbands’ marital satisfaction (Thompson, Whiffen, & Blain, 1995). Husbands’ emotional states predict wives’ emotion states; wives’ emotional states do not predict husbands’ emotional states (Larson & Pleck, 1999).
16 5.Relationship conflict: Research indicates that conflict influences relationship satisfaction among females and males: For both sexes, the number of conflicts experienced and the success with which conflicts are resolved influence relationship satisfaction (Cramer, 2002). Females and males identify similar sources of conflict in romantic relationships (e.g., lack of communication, deception; Helgeson, 1987).
17 Recently, however, there has been increased interest in same-sex relationships. This interest has been fueled by lesbian and gay advocates and debates regarding same-sex marriage. With respect to the topics that we have considered, this research has shown: Do lesbian and gay romantic relationships differ from heterosexual romantic relationships? Relatively little research has examined same-sex romantic relationships.
18 (a)Characteristics desired in a mate: Lesbians and gay men value “internal” attributes (e.g., kind) more than “external” attributes (e.g., physically attractive; Peplau et al., 1997). With respect to external attributes, gay men and heterosexual men are more likely than lesbians and heterosexuals women to emphasize physical appearance. Lesbians are less likely than heterosexual women to emphasize resource potential (Gonzales & Meyers, 1993; Bailey et al., 1994).
19 Lesbians and gay men are attracted to individuals who possess attributes similar to their own. However, because individuals with same-sex preferences have a smaller “pool” of potential mates, finding a mate with similar attributes presents a greater challenge (Helgeson, 2009).
20 Romantic Relationships: 1. What factors determine relationship satisfaction for females and males? (continued) 2. Do lesbian and gay romantic relationships differ from heterosexual romantic relationships?