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1 The Meaning of Clothing and Fashion Chapter Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Explain.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Meaning of Clothing and Fashion Chapter Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Explain."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 The Meaning of Clothing and Fashion Chapter

3 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Explain the basic reasons people wear clothing. State why people make various clothing choices. Describe fashion in terms of art and science, and private and public awareness. Summarize economic and political influences on fashion. Define basic fashion terms.

4 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Reasons for Wearing Clothing In ancient times, clothing of simple design was made from animal skins, plants, and other items found in nature – Today, clothing is made of various materials Clothing satisfies these basic human needs – physical – psychological – social

5 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Physical Needs Clothing provides protection, or physical safeguards As protection from weather, clothing provides comfort As protection from environmental dangers, clothing provides many benefits – Shoes protect the feet – Helmets protect the head in accidents – Sterile gloves protect against germs continued

6 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Physical Needs As protection from occupation hazards, special garments protect workers – Special occupational clothing includes items such as hard hats and safety goggles – Athletes often wear protective helmets, gloves, and pads – Soldiers and police officers wear protective clothing and shields

7 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Psychological Needs Psychological reasons for wearing clothing are adornment and identification – Adornment, or attractive decoration, existed in all civilizations throughout history Being adorned with clothing – gives people a positive psychological feeling – provides artistic expression – shows creativity continued

8 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Psychological Needs Culture often determines the type of adornment people use – Culture is a societys set of social norms or values How one culture views beauty can differ from how others view it Peoples ideas about beauty and adornment change over time as fashions change continued

9 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Psychological Needs Identification is the process of describing – who someone is – what he or she does Clothing helps the identification process – Example: Uniforms are specific to everyone within a certain group Emblems, colors, badges, and jewelry also aid identification continued

10 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Psychological Needs The regular clothing of many people can be considered a type of psychological uniform Some businesses and schools have dress codes, which are written or unwritten rules of appropriate attire Clothes adhering to a dress code – promote group identity – help group members maintain a certain discipline of behavior

11 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Social Needs The social reasons for wearing clothing are modesty and status Modesty is the covering of the body according to a cultures or a societys code of decency – U.S. standards of modesty have changed through the years – Each society or culture has its own accepted standards of modesty continued

12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Social Needs Clothing is sometimes used to gain a higher rank in society or to show social or military rank – A persons status is his or her position or rank compared to others – Good or high status is usually associated with recognition, prestige, and social acceptance

13 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Combined Needs Today, people wear clothes because of a combination of needs, which include – receiving physical and psychological pleasure – expressing creativity – fulfilling basic physical and social needs Clothing carries a highly visible message about who a person is, is not, or would like to be

14 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Why People Select Certain Clothes Clothing choices are influenced by a persons – personality traits – tendencies toward conformity or individuality – values and attitudes Values are the ideas, beliefs, and material items that are important to an individual Attitudes are personal feelings or reactions to people, things, or ideas

15 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Values and Attitudes Clothing values and attitudes are passed through the generations. Influences include – ethnic and cultural traditions – economic and social conditions – different needs and values linked to populations of certain ages – personal desire for status, easy care, comfort, etc. – advertising

16 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Conformity Versus Individuality Pressure from other people has a great influence on how people dress – Conformity means obeying or agreeing with a given standard or authority Children learn what they are expected to wear from parents and teachers Peer group pressure also contributes to conformity continued

17 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Conformity Versus Individuality Too much conformity can mean a loss of personal individuality – Individuality is self-expression or the quality that distinguishes one person from another Most people balance the influences of conformity and individuality in their clothing – They want to express themselves as individuals but also as part of a group

18 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Personality Traits Personality can be defined as the total characteristics that distinguish an individual Personality traits are often reflected in how people dress People who prefer – a lot of decoration tend to be very sociable – comfortable clothes tend to be confident, outgoing, and secure

19 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Needs Versus Wants Needs and wants are other factors that influence clothing choices – Example of a need: a heavy coat that provides warmth in a cold climate – Example of a want: a new coat that is simply more stylish A need is something a person must have for existence or survival continued

20 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Needs Versus Wants A want is a persons desire for something that gives him or her satisfaction – The wanted item would be nice to have, but the person can get along without it Both needs and wants affect buyers choices Success in the fashion business depends on understanding how consumers make apparel decisions

21 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Ongoing Fashion Perspectives Fashion is – both an art and a science – highly personal yet very public – influenced by economic, political, and other events

22 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion Insights As an art, fashion – incorporates creativity in its products – thrives on innovative, forward-thinking ideas – uses color, texture, line, and other aspects of design to produce stylish items to wear – complements current trends

23 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion Insights As a science, fashion uses science and technology to – produce textile fibers with specific qualities – develop effective dyes for specific materials – revolutionize the way apparel items are designed, mass-produced, distributed, and sold

24 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion is a private matter. – It satisfies physical, psychological, and social needs – Apparel choices reflect an individuals personal image outwardly to the public – The textile/apparel industry keeps new fashions secret as they are being designed continued Fashion Insights

25 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion becomes a public matter as soon as new fashions are introduced – Fashion is constantly in the public spotlight through the press and other media – Consumers excitedly anticipate seeing, hearing about, and wearing the new fashions – Fashion is affected by shifts in the economy and the makeup of the population Fashion Insights

26 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Economic, Political, and Other Influences on Fashion Fashion reflects economic conditions, political issues, current events, and popular entertainment Fashions mirror the times – Centuries ago, people dressed according to what was allowed for their social class – Rare and expensive items such as silk, pearls, and the purple coloring became status symbols continued

27 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Peoples moods are reflected in the way they dress In hard times – clothing usually has a serious, conservative look – people loose interest in their appearance In better times – styles are brighter and more adventurous – people are more willing to try different fashions Economic, Political, and Other Influences on Fashion

28 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Popular entertainment causes fashions to imitate a character of a movie, an actor, or a rock star As movies, concerts, and other modes of entertainment are publicized, consumers want to identify with them Fashion professionals stay aware of all the ways that apparel relates to society Industry Facts

29 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion Terminology A garment is an article of wearing apparel, such as a dress, suit, coat, or sweater – Examples of garment parts: sleeves, cuffs, collar, and waistband Accessories are the articles added to complete or enhance apparel outfits – Examples of accessories: belts, hats, jewelry, shoes, gloves, and scarves continued

30 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion Terminology A style is identified by distinct features that create an overall appearance Styles exist in architecture, painting, music, and most other forms of expression In apparel, each style is a particular design, shape, or type of garment with unique characteristics – Examples: A-line skirts, Bermuda shorts, safari jackets, and crewneck sweaters continued

31 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion Terminology The term style also describes an attractive condition – Certain trendsetters and fashion leaders are said to have style or to be stylish Fashion is the display of the currently popular style of objects or activities – In apparel, a fashion is the leading type of clothing bought and worn by a large segment of the public continued

32 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion Terminology Fashions consist of the styles, colors, and functionalities favored at a particular time – Styles come and go in fashion acceptance, causing fashions to constantly change High fashion items, which are the latest or newest fashions, usually are – innovative, expensive, and of fine quality – accepted by the first adopters of fashion changes – considered too extreme or unusual for the public continued

33 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion Terminology Mass fashion, or volume fashion, accounts for the majority of sales in the fashion business These styles are called homogenized because they are – produced in large quantities – accepted by the mass public

34 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. A design is a particular or unique style version – Example: A jumpsuit (pants attached to a top) can have different collars, pockets, or trims. Each version is a different design of the jumpsuit style The terms style and design – have distinct definitions – are often used interchangeably in the fashion industry Industry Facts

35 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion Terminology Avant-garde clothes are the most daring and wild designs – They are too unconventional and startling to be considered fashions of the times Most features of these garments – disappear after a few years – are used to draw attention to the wearer, often on stage continued

36 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion Terminology A fad is a temporary, passing fashion – It is an unusual garment, accessory, or look that has great appeal to many people for a short period of time Fads provide a – feeling of adventure for the wearers – sense of belonging to a group Eventually, most fads fade away continued

37 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion Terminology A classic style or design is one that continues to be popular over an extended period of time A garment of classic style or design – has simple, stylish lines that prevent it from being easily dated – is almost always acceptable – can have an updated look with only minor changes continued

38 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion Terminology A fashion look refers to a total accessorized outfit – Specific fashion looks are often identified with a celebrity or certain groups of people In fashion, taste refers to the prevailing opinion of what is attractive and appropriate – Good taste means sensitivity to what is artistically pleasing and appropriate for a given person and occasion

39 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. In Summary People wear clothing to satisfy physical, psychological, and social needs A persons values and attitudes play an important part in clothing selection Fashion is both an art and a science, involving creative thinking as well as technology Success in the fashion business requires the understanding of clothing and fashion terms


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