Presentation on theme: "First Aid European Championship in Forestry for Pupils and Students."— Presentation transcript:
First Aid European Championship in Forestry for Pupils and Students
Burns Burns and scalds are caused by contact with hot objects, naked flames, heat radiation, hot vapours and liquids, and by contact with electric current. Burns cause deep tissue damage on varying degrees. Symptoms and signs The degree of the burn can never be assessed at first sight, as symptoms develop only gradually.
Burns are classified as follows: First degree: reddening, swelling, pain Second degree: blister formation- - Superficial burns: intense pain - Deep burns: little pain, only sensation of tenseness Third degree: eschar formation, charring
Danger Three possible complications threaten the casualtys life: Shock: Circulation failure within a few hours. In extensive burns blood plasma escapes from the blood stream into the tissue. The loss of plasma leads (like severe blood loss) to shock, enhanced by the pain from the burn. Clinical Features: The severity of the burn does not only depend on the extent of tissue damage. The consequences of shock from the burn injuries and the overall constitutional upset caused the burn are far more dangerous. Kidney and lung function might be impaired or fail altogether. Infection: Germ invasion of the burnt area results in life-threatening infection and delays healing, and might even cause a tetanus infection.
First Aid When clothes are on fire, extinguish the flames at once Prohibit the person from rushing about with burning clothes Make him/her roll on the ground Smother the flames by wrapping clothes, blankets or garments around him/her Pour water over the casualty/immerse in water. If you use a fire extinguisher do not direct it to the casualtys face and keep a certain distance. Some types of fire extinguishers must not be used on persons. Therefore pay attention to the instructions on the fire extinguisher available. Remove clothing carefully – do not tear off clothes sticking to the skin.
Apply cold water Hold the burnt part immediately under cold, clean running water (10 to 15 min) to combat shock and to reduce heat and pain, until pain subsides. Extensive burns have to be treated with cold water within the first 30 minutes while circulation is still intact, as later the danger of shock increases. Cover the burn injuries with sterile material, such as burn dressings (pack), burn bandages, metallized dressings, if nothing else available, use clean bed sheets. Further shock treatment Emergency call – As soon as possible Euro emergency call 112
Fractures A fracture is a break of a bone caused by direct or indirect violence. The tensile strength and bending ability of the bone are exceeded and the bone breaks. There are two main types of fractures: Fracture without any visible wound (closed fracture) Fracture with visible wound at the site of the broken bone (open fracture). Symptoms and signs Pain, swelling, pain-relieving stance Movement is difficult or impossible Deformity (abnormal shape and outline of the bone) Wounds
First Aid Do not move the affected arm. In case of an open fracture immediately apply a sterile dressing. Loosen tight clothing, remove wrist-watches and rings. Immobilize the broken arm with a sling formed of an open triangular bandage Support with a broad-fold-bandage or a second open triangular bandage. Treat for shock Emergency call – As soon as possible Euro emergency call 112
Broken leg First Aid Do not move the injured leg. Loosen tight clothing, shoelaces, etc., but do not take the shoes off. In case of an open fracture, immediately apply a sterile dressing. Immobilize the limb by supporting it with suitable padding between the legs. Treat for shock. Emergency call - As soon as possible Euro emergency call 112
Severe bleeding Symptoms and signs Severe bleeding: Blood spurts from a wound or escapes in gushes and in a considerable quantity of blood is lost within a very short period of time A pool of blood (on an impermeable surface) could be evidence for considerable blood loss. Blood-soaked clothing First Aid Controlling bleeding is an essential life-saving measure. The method of controlling bleeding depends on the severity of the bleeding and thus the blood loss, not on the type of bleeding. Almost every visible strong bleeding can be stopped by sufficiently strong external pressure on the source of the bleeding. Avoid direct contact with the blood (use disposable gloves).
Stop the bleeding by finger pressure: Sit or lay the casualty down, Press a sterile dressing onto the severely bleeding wound Maintain pressure until the ambulance arrives. Emergency call – As soon as possible Euro emergency call112
Major bleeding - pressure bandage 12
pressure bandage 13
14 Possibilities of haemostasis finger pressure Pressure dressing is carried out in the first aid by means of sterile dressing, pressure body (triangular bandage, gauze bandages,..) and an elastic bandage as fixing
Major bleeding - pressure bandage 15 ensure safety sit or lie down injured look for bandages and gloves, dial emergency select and press firmly against the wound Pressure bandage Based measures perform
Shock The purpose of blood circulation is to provide the whole body, especially all vital organs, with blood and thus with oxygen. In circulatory malfunctions – caused, for instance, by blood loss, by serious injuries, extensive burns, poisonings, severe allergies and heart rhythm disorders – the vital organs receive less blood which results in insufficient oxygen supply. Initially this leads to functional disorders, subsequently to permanent organ damage- resulting in organ failure – and eventually to death. Pain might enhance this circulatory disorder = shock. Shock is not an immediate reaction, but develops gradually and may rapidly become life-threatening. The earlier shock is treated, the better. Consequently shock treatment should be performed as a preventive measure before the shock actually occurs. Therefore it is necessary to treat every emergency patient for shock until the ambulance arrives.
Symptoms and signs The following symptoms do not all appear and not at the same time, because the shock develops gradually: Apathy or, on the contrary, conspicuous restlessness Pulse is rapid and shallow Pallor and moist, clammy skin Muscle tremor Danger When the shock becomes life-threatening, the casualty turns ashen and becomes increasingly listless. He is only semi-conscious, no pulse is felt at his wrist, unconsciousness, impaired breathing (gasping) sets in, and eventually death may occur due to circulatory failure.
First Aid Shock treatment aims at supporting and maintaining the vital functions (breathing and circulation) by: Swift, exact control of bleeding Treatment of wounds (e.g. application of cold water on burns or chemical burns) Placing the casualty or patient in a position causing as little pain as possible, depending on his condition (e.g. flat on his back, legs raised, half-sitting,etc.), Loosening tight clothing, Keeping the casualty warm, Providing fresh air, if indoors, Making the casualty breathe slowly and deeply, Shielding the casualty from excitement, Reassuring and comforting the casualty, Emergency call – As soon as possible Euro emergency call 112
Triangular bandages: Triangular bandages are used to secure sterilized dressings. A triangular bandage can be used to make simple bandages everywhere on the body. When applying a triangular bandage, the casualty should, if possible, help by holding the wound dressing or the triangular bandage in place. Never tie knots over the wound or in areas where they might cause pain by pressure. Do not tighten the knots too firmly. Head Bandage Step1 Head Bandage Step2Head Bandage Step3Head Bandage Step4
Wounds First Aid Sit or lay the casualty down Cover the wound with a sterile dressing Avoid direct contact with the blood (use disposable gloves) Do not touch the wound Do not cleanse or disinfect the wound Do not apply any ointments, powder or other remedies. Leave foreign objects in the wound Immobilize the injured part Call the doctor or get the casualty to hospital, if possible at once, but within 6 hours
Different placings Chest injuries Open tight clothes If possible, place the casualty in an almost half-sitting position turning him to his injured side Treat for shock Emergency call As soon as possible Euro emergency call112
Abdominal injuries Lie the casualty down with legs drawn up and support his knees with a rolled blanket or garnment. Emergency call – As soon as possible Euro emergency call 112
Skull injuries If necessary, take immediate life-saving action. Cover the wound – do not apply any pressure to the wound Lie the casualty down with raisen head and thorax, if he is conscious. If he is unconscious, turn him to his uninjured side. Exception: if the skull is dented or broken, the casualty should lie on the uninjured side. Further shock treatment. Emergency call – As soon as possible Euro emergency call112
Spinal column injury At the suspicion on an injury of the spinal column the casualty should be left in the found situation. If the casualty is in a danger area (salvage) or is he unconscious (check heart function and circulation), of course this isn't possible Emergency call – As soon as possible Euro emergency call112