1. APPLY PRESSURE TO THE WOUND - Remove or cut casualty’s clothing to expose the wound - Apply direct pressure over the wound - Apply a pad - Cover the wound with a sterile dressing 2. RAISE AND SUPPORT INJURED PART - Lie casualty down - Raise injured part above the level of the heart - Handle gently if you suspect a fracture What steps do we use to treat severe bleeding?
Ash is sitting at his desk picking wax out of his ear, when he slips and the pencil stabs deep into his ear. He is bleeding extremely badly. What should Jake do to help Ash?
Background Information There are 206 bones in the human body. The skeleton holds our skin up, and bones act as factories for producing blood and essential blood cells through bone marrow. Bones are also integral to the body’s strength. Some bones have a protective function (skull), some a supporting function (pelvis), while others are for movement (fingers). When a bone is broken, or fractured, it affects not only blood production and function, but there can be complications associated with the muscles, tendons, nerves and blood vessels that are attached, or are close, to the bone.
Classifying Fractures ○ Open - where there is a wound exposing the fracture site, or the bone is protruding from the skin. ○ Closed - where the bone has fractured but has no obvious external wound. ○ Complicated - which may involve damage to associated vital organs and major blood vessels as a result of the fracture.
Signs and Symptoms for Fractures Pain at or near the site of the injury Difficult or impossible normal movement Loss of power Deformity or abnormal mobility Tenderness Swelling Dislocation and bruising
Treatment for Fractures If you cannot tell exactly what injury the casualty has sustained, treat it as a fracture ( different procedures occur for different parts of the body) The most important part of treatment of a suspected fracture is to keep the limb still. What is the most common way to support a suspected fractured limb?
Treatment for Fractures Continued 1. FOLLOW DRABCD 2. CONTROL ANY BLEEDING AND COVER ANY WOUNDS 3. CHECK FOR FRACTURES Open, closed, complicated fractures 4. ASK CASUALTY NOT TO MOVE INJURED PART
Treatment for Fractures Continued 5. IMMOBILISE FRACTURE Use broad bandages to prevent movement at joints above and below fracture Support the limb, carefully passing bandages under natural hollows of the body Place a padded splint along the injured limb (under leg for fractured kneecap) Place padding between the splint and the natural contours of the body and secure tightly Check that bandages are not too tight (or too loose) every 15 minutes I NEED A VOLUNTEER PLEASE.....
Dislocations Dislocations involve the displacement of bone from a joint. These injuries are often underestimated, and can have serious consequences in the form of damage to nerves and blood vessels. Many people have joints which dislocate easily due to a congenital condition, or weak ligaments, stretched by previous repeated dislocations.
Signs and Symptoms for Dislocations sudden pain in the affected joint loss of power and movement deformity and swelling of the joint tenderness may have some temporary paralysis of the injured limb
Treatment for Dislocations rest ice support limb in position of comfort seek medical aid any attempt to reduce a dislocation is only to be made by a doctor severe dislocations require intense physiotherapy, and if tendons and ligaments are broken, surgery
What’s the difference? What looks different between a fracture and a dislocation? Do we treat the injury the same or different? Explain. In both cases should you seek medical aid eg ambulance or doctor?
Scenario 1 Johnny was playing a game of AFL on the school oval. He jumped for a mark and fell backwards on his right wrist. Johnny and people around him heard a snap sound. Johnny began screaming. He lifted his right arm and his arm bent between his elbow and his wrist. What would you do in this situation?
Scenario 2 Annie was playing in a touch football competition. She did a side step on her left leg and fell to the ground in agony. You run over to her and you notice her knee cap is on the side of her leg. What would you do in this situation?