PULL FACTORS High wages Cheap land Attractive living conditions Opportunities for economic advancement
BARRIERS TO MIGRATION Physical cost of move Mental costs of breaking family or cultural ties Age, Health, Marital status, Distance Immigration policies
INTERVENING OPPORTUNITIES As one migrates, there could be stops along the way which could be positive or negative, but the migrant does not reach his/her final destination. The migrant stays where the intervening opportunity has taken place. For example this could be a job offer. The migrant could be migrating from Bangla Desh to the UK but as he/she travels through Italy to reach the UK a job is given to him and he/she stays in Italy.
FORCED MIGRATION This is negative selected migration where there is little choice involved in the movement and in the choice of the destination. Reasons are usually politically motivated or for emergency economic reasons
MAIN CAUSES OF FORCED MIGRATION War, especially civil war Political persecution Lack of freedom & individual rights Famine Major natural disasters
REFUGEES Migrants who are forced to migrate and arrive in another country. If the movement is politically motivated, they often ask for asylum status.
INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS Refugees within their own country. They are forced to leave their region and they move to another part of the country.
RECENT EXAMPLES OF FORCED MIGRATION Sudan – Darfur