5 Pull and Push factors: what causes people to move? Pulls: People are “drawn” to new regions because of different opportunities elsewhere, such as economic or political/religious freedomsPushes: People flee to new regions because of conflicts, natural disasters
6 Voluntary or Forced Migration? Voluntary: free choiceForced: not your choiceSlaveryRefugees
7 International migration 3% of world’s population migrates to new homelands each yearWide range of push and pull factorsMajor impact on past and future homelands
15 In the African nationof Sudan, drought,famine and civil warhave brought aboutincreased migration over the past two decades.The number of Sudanese changing residence has climbed from 1.3 million in 1983 to 3.4 million in 2000.
17 Poor individuals from developing countries can have higher standards of living in developed countries than in their originating countries.The availability of jobs is the pull factor.
18 For some migrants, education is another primary pull factor For some migrants, education is another primary pull factor. Getting a better education assures a better job!
19 Retirement migration from highly developed countries to lower-cost countries with better climate, is a new type of international “PULL” migration.An example is immigration of retired United States citizens to Mexico and Central America.
20 Some migration is for personal reasons, based on a relationships People are drawn to move in order to join other family members in a new homeland.
21 Internal migration… People move within a nation’s boundaries: Rural to Urban migrationRegion to Region
22 Example of Internal Migration “Push” Factor- Natural Disaster In the 1930s, the drought in the Great Plains (Dust Bowl) drove many farmers from their homes to find work in western states’ farms, such as California.
25 Factors Where People decide to Resettle? People tend to migrate to new homelands after considering:DistanceAccessibility to other regions(Will new regions accept migrants?)Cultural or social similaritiesPersonal contacts
26 Illegal immigration refers to migration across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country.
27 Example of Illegal Immigration: PULL factor People seeking economic opportunities account for most of the illegal immigration to the United States.57% of illegal aliens are of Mexican origin and about 75% are of Latin American origin.
29 Example of Illegal Immigration: PUSH factor After years of armed conflict, roughly one of every 20 Colombians have fled.Colombia is the fourth-leading source country of unauthorized immigration to the United States.
30 Information About International Migration: According to, the United Nations, most international migrants move to high-income developed countriesThis means that most migrants are seeking better economic opportunties
31 Opposition to immigration is prominent in the United States, which has the largest absolute numbers of immigrants.However, many European countries are experiencing population decline. In such circumstances, immigration helps fill vacant jobs in the economy.