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SMAW Welding Techniques. Weld Bead A weld resulting from a pass Stringer Bead Weave Bead.

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Presentation on theme: "SMAW Welding Techniques. Weld Bead A weld resulting from a pass Stringer Bead Weave Bead."— Presentation transcript:

1 SMAW Welding Techniques

2 Weld Bead A weld resulting from a pass Stringer Bead Weave Bead

3 Passes Weld Pass - A single progression of welding along a joint. The result of a pass is a weld bead or layer

4 Root PassHot Pass Fill PassCover Pass

5 Techniques Stringer (drag) (whip) Weave –Circles –crescent –zig zag –box weave –double J

6 Progression (vertical) Up –deeper penetration –Higher deposit rate (lb/hr) –Use near 90 degree travel angle or slightly up Down –faster (point to point) –less penetration for thin metal –less dilution –Use steep grag angle

7 Travel Speed Stay on the leading edge of the puddle

8 Flat Position Fillet/Groove - stringer or weave, split bead or wide weave

9 Horizontal Fillet/Groove - stringers (small weave may be used in tight place) Bead Placement - bottom to top

10 Vertical Fillet/Groove - weave (or whip but not straight stringers) Root pass 6010 whip Root pass 7018 straight stringer or weave (open closed)

11 Overhead Same as horizontal for Fillets 6010 open root whip for flat face and keyhole control 7018s stringers OH Butt Joints can be stringers or weaves

12 Dimensions Reinforcement -ASME flush 1/16 AWS flush 1/8 discuss keyholeing, metallic backing, nonmetallic backing, partial penetration, root openings, root faces, tacking, tack grinding, fast freeze, and fill freeze Fill -as many as needed 1/8 per pass flat overload 3/16 vertical Cover -flush 1/16 high, 1/16 past edge

13 60 0 included angle Root faces Tacking Feather Tacks Butt Joint Preperation 1/16-1/8 (Joints without backing)

14 Open Root Technique Use root opening to allow increase in amperage for smoother welding Whip backwards for penetration Whip forwards to reduce penetration Do Not Weave a root pass. Maintain a short arc gap Stay slightly in front of the puddle at all times. Use the keyholing technique.

15 Root faces included angle Remove all mill scales and rust Tacking - not in groove Tack away from coupon area. Flush on backing Butt Joint Preperation (With Backing)

16 Welding grooves with Backing Keep the root opening wide Make the root pass in one bead Avoid tight areas at the weld toes

17 Restarts Stagger all starts and stops or use run-on, run-off tabs Feather all restarts & start on top, or start in front and remelt Dont restart in a coupon area. Also stagger all beads on a single pass. Use a longer arc length when starting a weld. Compare interpass grinding techniques vs. techniques for no interpass grinding.

18 Craters Fill craters by reversing direction at the weld end Use a short arc length to control heat.

19 Electrode Work Angles

20 work angle (transverse angle) middle of joint directs heat between sides may need to direct more on heavy plate

21 Transverse Angle Effects

22 Drag Angle increases Penetration Increases crown height Push Angle gives shallow penetration, and flattens out the weld surface. Electrode Travel Angles

23 Electrode (arc) Placement Current takes the path of least resistance. Therefore, the arc, and resulting weld, will go where the electrode end is closest to, NOT NECESSARILY IN THE DIRECTION THE ELECTRODE IS POINTING

24 Arc Length Longer arc lengths = increased puddle heat, flatter welds, deeper penetration Shorter arc lengths = less puddle heat, flatter welds, less penetration Use arc length to control puddle size, penetration, and burn through. Normal arc length is 1/16 - 1/8 Use a slightly longer arc length during a start or restart.

25 Helpful Tips Clean your Welding Hood lens Drape the cable over your shoulder or knee Get Comfortable Watch the puddle, not the arc Concentrate on steady travel speed and arc length

26 SMAW Pipe Welding Techniques

27 Positions 1G 2G 5G 6G 1F 2F 2FR 4F 5F

28 1G Position Pipe rotated, Electrode is always at the top Either a split bead or weave technique may be used

29 2G Position Pipe Axis Vertical, Weld is Horizontal, Pipe is considered in a fixed position. Always use a split bead technique Always work from the bottom up.

30 5G Position Axis of the Pipe is Horizontal, The weld in vertical. Progression may be up or down. A weave bead is best used.

31 6G Position Pipe axis is fixed in position at a 45 degree incline. Thhe position includes flat, horizontal, vertical, and overhead welds. A split bead tecvhnique is best used.

32 1F Position Pipe is rotated. The pipe axis is at a 45 degree incline. Welding is to occur at the top of the pipe. Split bead or weave technique may be used.

33 2F Position Fixed Position Best to use a split bead technique

34 2FR Position Rotated A split bead technique is best used.

35 4F Position A split bead technique is best used

36 5F Position Not Rotated. Progression may be up or down. Split beads or weaves can be used on 5F-up welds, split beads are best used on 5F-down welds.

37 Root PassHot Pass Fill PassCover Pass

38 Always work from the bottom up when using the split bead technique Always be careful not to create a tight area where slag may get trapped under the next weld. It is better to weave slightly than to leave a tight area. Plan your sequence of beads!

39 Always work toward the smaller side of the fillet. (It will be easier to get to) Always be careful not to create a tight area where slag may get trapped under the next weld. It is better to weave slightly than to leave a tight area. Plan your sequence of beads!

40 Techniques Stringer (push, drag, or whip), or Weave

41 Progression (vertical) Up –deeper penetration –Higher deposit rate (lb/hr) –Use near 90 degree travel angle or slightly up Down –faster (point to point) –less penetration for thin metal –less dilution –Use steep drag angle

42 Travel Speed Stay on the leading edge of the puddle

43 Keyholeing

44 Root Openings Small will allow more amperage which will in turn make welding smoother and easier, as well as easier arc starts. Larger root openings will allow more penetration.

45 Root Faces Larger root faces will allow more amperage which will in turn make welding smoother and easier, as well as easier arc starts. Smaller root faces will allow more penetration.

46 Tacking, Tack Grinding 3/4 long feather both ends clean and flatten tops start on top, burn through before end run completely onto tack before stopping grind lumps off before next pass stagger all starts and stops between passes stagger all starts and stops between beads in a single pass Dont overgrind tacks.

47 Root faces included angle Remove all mill scales and rust Tacking - not in groove Tack away from coupon area. Flush on backing Butt Joint Preperation (With Backing)

48 60 0 included angle Root faces Tacking Feather Tacks Butt Joint Preperation 1/16-1/8 (Joints without backing)

49 Open Root Technique Use root opening to allow increase in amperage for smoother welding Whip backwards for penetration Whip forwards to reduce penetration Do Not Weave a root pass. Maintain a short arc gap Stay slightly in front of the puddle at all times. Use the keyholing technique.

50 Restarts Stagger all starts and stops or use runon, runoff tabs Feather all restarts & start on top, or start in front and remelt Also stagger all beads on a single pass. Use a longer arc length when starting a weld.

51 Craters Fill craters by welding into the previous weld start Use a short arc length to control heat.

52 Wagon Tracks

53 Watch these areas. Be sure to keep it melted into these spots.

54 Electrode Angles Up Progression - always point toward center of Pipe Down Progression - use a steep drag angle

55 Arc Length Longer arc lengths = increased puddle heat, flatter welds, deeper penetration Shorter arc lengths = less puddle heat, flatter welds, less penetration Use arc length to control puddle size, penetration, and burn through. Normal arc length is 1/16 - 1/8 Use a slightly longer arc length during a start or restart.

56 Helpful Tips Clean your Welding Hood lens Drape the cable over your shoulder or knee Get Comfortable Watch the puddle, not the arc Concentrate on steady travel speed and arc length

57 BACK TO WELDING TERMINOLOGY


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