2Positions1G2G5G6G1F2F2FR4F5FBasic review of position designation codes. These codes will be taught in detail later.
31G Position Pipe rotated, Electrode is always at the top Split bead or weave technique may be used because gravity will not act to pull the puddle to one side in this positionEmphasize the REASONS for choosing one technique over anotherRecommend progressing from one side to the other on the split bead technique. Otherwise, you increase the likelihood of undercutting in previous beads and of getting a humpy contour.Pipe rotated, Electrode is always at the topEither a split bead or weave technique may be used
42G PositionPipe Axis Vertical, Weld is Horizontal, Pipe is considered in a “fixed” position.Always use a split bead techniqueAlways work from the bottom up.Using a wide weave will lead to the bead sagging toward the bottom, increasing the likelihood of overlap at the bottom, and undercut at the top.Working from the bottom up gives you a shelf to work from which decreases the likelihood of entrapmentsRecommend using a weave technique to avoid a narrow tight area at the upper side of a pass, especially the hot pass. Explain that this tight area must be avoided. You will not often “burn it out”. You will almost always create a massive slag inclusion. Cleaning before welding will not solve it either, because new slag will go into it from flux on the electrode as you weld.
55G Position Axis of the Pipe is Horizontal, The weld in vertical. The weave technique is best used in vertical, F and OH doesn’t matter much. Therefore, 5G-up will best be accomplished using the weave. There is a limit on how wide you will be allowed to weave. It will depend on the code requirements, electrode side, and electrode type.Down vertical could use either, I prefer the split bead to increase travel speed stay ahead of the molten slag.Axis of the Pipe is Horizontal, The weld in vertical.Progression may be up or down.A weave bead is best used.
66G PositionPipe axis is fixed in position at a 45 degree incline. Thhe position includes flat, horizontal, vertical, and overhead welds.A split bead tecvhnique is best used.I tend to use a split bead technique on 6G. However, if the groove is narrow, I will sometimes use a weave bead to avoid that narrow tight area at the top toe of the weld.
71F PositionPipe is rotated. The pipe axis is at a 45 degree incline. Welding is to occur at the top of the pipe.Split bead or weave technique may be used.We tend to forget that pipe can have fillet welds too.
82F Position Fixed Position Best to use a split bead technique This weld is no different than a 2F fillet weld on plate.
92FR PositionA split bead technique is best used.Rotated
10A split bead technique is best used 4F PositionA split bead technique is best used
115F Position Not Rotated. Progression may be up or down. Split beads or weaves can be used on 5F-up welds, split beads are best used on 5F-down welds.
12Fill Pass Cover Pass Root Pass Hot Pass Hot pass - one or two beads. But keep it open. If we did end up with a tight area, it would be best to open up the area with a grinder and repair it before moving to the next pass.
13Plan your sequence of beads! Always work from the bottom up when using the split bead techniqueAlways be careful not to create a tight area where slag may get trapped under the next weld.It is better to weave slightly than to leave a tight area.Plan your sequence of beads!
14Plan your sequence of beads! Always work toward the smaller side of the fillet. (It will be easier to get to)Always be careful not to create a tight area where slag may get trapped under the next weld.It is better to weave slightly than to leave a tight area.Plan your sequence of beads!
15Techniques Stringer (push, drag, or whip), or Weave Remember, there is a reason for a particular travel or longitudinal angle. There is also a reason for a whip or a stringer technique as well as a wide weave or a split bead technique. Think ahead and use the most advantageous technique.Welding is not magic, it is careful study and forethought.
16Progression (vertical) Updeeper penetrationHigher deposit rate (lb/hr)Use near 90 degree travel angle or slightly upDownfaster (point to point)less penetration for thin metalless dilutionUse steep drag angle
17Travel Speed Stay on the leading edge of the puddle Review the effects for fast and slow travel on:penetrationcontourwidth
18Dimensions Reinforcement Height ASME flush - 1/16 AWS flush 1/8 Reinforcement Width1/16” past bevel edgeSmooth transition at weld toe (45o max)
19Keyholeing Explain How to do this technique reasons for this technique effects of root opening and root face on heat sinkwhy to never whip completely into the molten puddlethat keyhole size determines root reinforcement width
20Backing Metallic backing ring consumable inserts Describe them Why we use themWhy we don’t use themshow examples
21Welding grooves with Inserts Keep the root opening wideMake the root pass in one beadAvoid tight areas at the weld toes
22Welding a PJP grooveWorks great for limiting restrictions inside pipesmake up for loss of wall on reinforcement
23Root OpeningsSmall will allow more amperage which will in turn make welding smoother and easier, as well as easier arc starts.Larger root openings will allow more penetration.
24Root FacesLarger root faces will allow more amperage which will in turn make welding smoother and easier, as well as easier arc starts.Smaller root faces will allow more penetration.
25Tacking, Tack Grinding 3/4” long feather both ends clean and flatten topsstart on top, burn through before endrun completely onto tack before stoppinginterpass grind lumps off before next passstagger all starts and stops betoeen passesstagger all starts and stops between beads in a single passDon’t overgrind tacks.
26Butt Joint Preperation (With Backing)Root faces - 0450 included angleRemove all mill scales and rustTacking - not in grooveTack away from coupon area.Flush on backing
27Butt Joint Preperation (Joints without backing)1/16-1/8600 included angleRoot facesTackingFeather Tacks
28Open Root TechniqueUse root opening to allow increase in amperage for smoother weldingWhip backwards for penetrationWhip forwards to reduce penetrationDo Not Weave a root pass.Maintain a short arc gapStay slightly in front of the puddle at all times. Use the keyholing technique.
29Restarts Stagger all starts and stops or use runon, runoff tabs Feather all restarts & start on top, or start in front and remeltDon’t restart in a coupon area.Also stagger all beads on a single pass.Use a longer arc length when starting a weld.Compare interpass grinding techniques vs. no interpass grinding.
30Craters Fill craters by welding into the previous weld start Use a short arc length to control heat.
32Watch these areas. Be sure to keep it melted into these spots.
33Electrode Angles Up Progression - always point toward center of Pipe Down Progression - use a steep drag angle
34Arc LengthLonger arc lengths = increased puddle heat, flatter welds, deeper penetrationShorter arc lengths = less puddle heat, flatter welds, less penetrationUse arc length to control puddle size, penetration, and burn through.Normal arc length is 1/16” - 1/8”Use a slightly longer arc length during a start or restart.
35Helpful Tips Clean your Welding Hood lens Drape the cable over your shoulder or kneeGet ComfortableWatch the puddle, not the arcConcentrate on steady travel speed and arc length