2 Atoms & Elements c) Atom Structure An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means. An element is made of 1 type of Atom!A compound consists of 2 or more elements that have been chemically combined.All Organic compounds contain the element Carbon. Compounds that do NOT contain Carbon are called Inorganic compounds.c) Atom StructureNucleus = Protons & NeutronsOutside of Nucleus = Electrons
3 The atomic number does NOT change. The mass number will change if the number of neutrons changes (called an Isotope).The atomic number does NOT change.
4 IONS Lose Electron = Positively Charged Ion Gain Electron = Negatively Charged Ion
5 Chemical Bonds Chemical Bonds are formed because of ELECTRONS. Covalent bonds SHARE electrons & are very STRONG.Ionic bonds TRANSFER electrons & are WEAKER because they form IONS.Hydrogen bonds are formed because of electrical CHARGES instead of electrons. They are very WEAK.
6 IsotopesIsotopes have different numbers of NEUTRONS but the same number of PROTONS so the atomic MASS is different.
7 0-6 = Acid 7 = Neutral 8-14 = Base pH is the measurement of ACIDITY because it measures the concentration of H+ ions in the solution.The “lower” the pH, the higher the concentration is of H+ so the substance is a stronger ACID.The “higher” the pH, the lower the concentration is of H+ so the substance is a stronger BASE.At a pH of 7, the concentration of H+ and OH- ions is EQUAL, so the pH is NEUTRAL.0-6 = Acid 7 = Neutral = Base
8 and divide the number of OH- ions by 10 (move decimal to left). DECREASE by pH by 1 (make more ACIDIC)= multiply the number of H+ ions by 10 (move decimal to right)and divide the number of OH- ions by 10 (move decimal to left).(do the opposite for increasing the pH)
9 Compounds that contain Carbon are called ORGANIC Compounds that do NOT contain Carbon are called INORGANICPOLYMERSare made ofMONOMERS
10 Compounds that contain Carbon are called ORGANIC Compounds that do NOT contain Carbon are called INORGANICPOLYMERSare made ofMONOMERS
13 Saturated Fatty Acids ONLY have Single Bonds between the Carbons. Unsaturated have at least 1 double bond.
14 Monosaccharides = Simple Sugars (glucose & fructose) Disaccharides = 2 simple sugars joined together (sucrose & lactose)Polysaccharides = Starches; many simple sugars joined togetherPlant Starch = CelluloseAnimal Starch = Glycogen
15 Properties of WaterPolarity = one side of the molecule is SLIGHTLY POSITIVE and the other side is SLIGHTLY NEGATIVE.H2O = The 2H are Positive and O is Negative BECAUSE the electrons are NOT shared equally!Polarity creates ALL of the other properties of water!
16 PROPERTIES OF WATER Cohesion & Adhesion happen because of POLARITY. Adhesion is when water molecules adhere (stick) to OTHER SUBSTANCESCohesion is when water molecules adhere (stick) to OTHER WATER MOLECULESCohesion & Adhesion both create SURFACE TENSION. They also contribute to CAPILLARY ACTION (allows water to CLIMB) AND IONIZATION (which contributes to water being the UNIVERSAL SOLVENT).Pure water has a NEUTRAL pH because there is the SAME concentration of H+ ions as OH- ions.