Presentation on theme: "DEVELOPING A DISASTER DEBRIS MANAGEMENT PLAN"— Presentation transcript:
1DEVELOPING A DISASTER DEBRIS MANAGEMENT PLAN Claude Denver and George CoyleDHS&EM Operations SectionOctober 6, 2011
2Debris Management Cycle Pre-Disaster PlanningScoping the MissionEmergency Clearance WorkDebris RemovalDebris Reduction and RecyclingDebris DisposalPlan ahead.Assess what needs done.Provide for life/safety issues.Remove, reduce, and dispose.
3Getting StartedThere are three activities that we recommend before starting the disaster debris management plan.The first step is to understand the State’s and FEMA’s requirements for debris management eligibility.A multi-agency team should be identified to create the plan.Establish a schedule for updating the plan to ensure that it reflects current practices and policies.A team should be identified for the plan’s creation. This team may include planningofficials, emergency management officials, environmental officials, and first responders. Theteam may also include officials from other communities that have experienced disasters in thepast. The team should establish how the plan will be created and who, beyond the team,should review it, such as neighboring communities or state and federal officials.Last, it is recommended that a schedule for updating the plan be established. Updating acommunity’s disaster debris management plan is important to ensure that it reflects currentpractices and policies. The plan could be reviewed once a year and revised as needed. Forexample, outdated forms, such as time sheets and materials tracking forms, might need to berevised. If reuse and recycling practices are expanded, they could be added to the plan. Newdevelopments may change the collection strategy and may contribute to larger debris amounts.Should a disaster occur, supporting agencies will find the plan most useful if it is up-to-date anddescribes current practices and policies, as well as the types, locations, and capacities of existingsolid waste management facilities.
4Pre-disaster Planning Develop the Debris Management Plan (DMP).Work with State and Federal officials in developing your plan.Include the right people on your planning team.Develop pre-incident contracts for disaster debris removal with local contractors..Prudent planning in advance of a disaster includes assembling a debris-coordinating group comprised of local, State and Federal personnel to identify possible disaster-related debris management issues.Typically the planning team consists of Public Works, Environmental, Solid Waste Disposal, Policy and Political offices at all levels of government.Identify Disaster Debris Contractors utilizing prearranged contracts.
5Components of a DMP Pre-planning activities Identify likely debris types and forecast amountsList applicable agencies and regulations*:Local, state, and federalInventory current capacity for debris managementIdentify equipment and administrative needs (including pre-negotiated contracts)Develop communication planCreate a disaster debris prevention strategyCreate a debris removal strategy beyond initial clearingPre-select temporary debris storage sitesPrioritize debris management optionsHarmful materials identification and handling recommendationsRecycling optionsWaste-to-energy optionsDisposal optionsOpen burning options*Do your local regulations cover demolition of private structures?The demolition of private structures requires condemnation by authorized local officials in accordance with State and local law before removal of this debris may be considered for eligibility for State and Federal disaster assistance.In the absence of local building inspectors, the State Fire Marshall may conduct life- and structural safety assessments.As with debris removal from private property, demolition of private structures requires approval by FEMA prior to start of work and agreement by the local government(s) to save and hold the Federal government free from damages due to performance of the work as well as condemnation of the private structure by authorized local or state officials.
6Benefits of having a DMP Helps determine the level of pre-disaster management needed to avoid rushed or, ultimately, poor decisions during the disaster.Significantly minimize costly mistakes, speed recovery, protect human health and the environment, and prevent the generation of additional waste.Identifies cost-effective debris management options and resources that can save money.Increases control over debris management and improves administrative efficiency.Serves as a resource document in negotiating technical and financial assistance with the state, FEMA, and other agencies.Expedites the removal of debris—an important sign of recovery that residents will see which in turn reduces dangers of fire, personal injury, and disease vectors.A disaster debris management planwill aid communities in determining the appropriate management options in advance of a disaster to avoid rushed or, ultimately, poor decisions.Although the recovery process may take a long time, perhaps even years, careful planning can significantly minimize costly mistakes, speed recovery, protect human health and the environment, and prevent the generation of additional waste.A plan identifying cost-effective debris management options and resources can save money.It also will increase control over debris management and improve administrative efficiency.The plan also may serve as a resource document in negotiating technical and financial assistance with FEMA and other agencies.Having a sound disaster debris management plan will expedite removal of debris—an important sign of recovery that residents will see.Expedited removal also will reduce dangers of fire, personal injury, and disease vectors.
7Additional Activities addressed by the DMP Tasks that do not directly involve the management of the disaster debris but are important to an effective response program can be addressed through the DMP.Will help communities understand the possible scope of a debris problem and how their community can address it given the resources and facilities that they currently have or have access to.
8Identify Debris Types and Forecast Amounts The types of materials that will make up the disaster debris stream should be assessed.By disaster type (e.g., windstorm, earthquake, tsunami, etc.)By region (Western Coast, Interior, North Slope, South-Central, Panhandle, etc.)By level of urbanization (e.g., municipality, city, village, etc.)FEMA and the USACE have HAZUS maps, GIS software, and debris prediction models that could be used.
9Typical Debris Streams for Different Types of Disasters
10List Applicable Federal, State, and Local Environmental Regulations Once a disaster strikes, there will not be time to do extensive research.Prior to the disaster, communities need to understand how all waste types must be managed according to federal, state, and local regulationsAn effective disaster debris management plan includes ;a listing of all applicable regulationshow each debris type must be managed according to those regulations.an updated contact list of pertinent federal, state, and local environmental officials whom a community can reach in the event that guidance on the regulations is needed during clean-up.
11Inventory Current Capacity for Debris Management After the amount and type of debris are estimated, assess the region’s capacity to manage the debris.Solid waste management facilitiesneed to be inventoriedContacts, locations, and directions for all solid waste facilities listed for quick reference.Any other necessary service providers should also be compiled.After the amount and type of debris are estimated, planners need to assess the region’scapacity to manage the debris. Solid waste management facilities, including disposal, recyclingand reuse, and combustion facilities need to be inventoried, along with their daily and permittedcapacity to receive different types of debris. Each facility’s ability to manage additional debrisbeyond their normal or permitted daily load should be evaluated. It is recommended thatcontacts for all solid waste facilities are listed for quick reference along with the facilities’physical locations, including latitude/longitude coordinates, global positioning system (GPS)coordinates, and/or road maps. Lists of any other necessary service providers (such asdemolition contractors, refrigerant removers, electronics processors, etc.) could also becompiled.Evaluate all options, not just trucks, for moving debris to preferred facilities.Consider additional waste management facilities through mutual aid agreements.
12Determine Debris Tracking Mechanisms The EPA recommends that communities determine how debris can be tracked during clean-up.Tracking information is important to determine:the amount of capacity used and available at various debris management locations,to pay debris haulers, andto determine the total amount managed from the disaster.The State and FEMA also have tracking requirements for reimbursement.As contract debris haulers generally are paid on the basis of volume of debris hauled, provisions in the disaster debris management plan could be made for measuring truck carrying capacity and assigning each truck a number before the truck is allowed to collect debris.The assigned truck number allows for tracking debris amounts by individual truck. Each truck would be monitored at the receiving facility for the volume that they carry.
13Pre-select Debris Management Sites Pre-select temporary sites that can be used for the storing, sorting, and processing of debris.Identifying ample space to stage, store, and process debris can be a challenge.Sites selected in the past have included disposal facilities, landfills/dumps, local parks, or closed industrial/military facilities.These sites can be used to temporarily store debris before transferring it to another facility, or they can be used to process debris on site.Conveniently located sites can reduce travel time when transferring debris to processing or management facilities and result in expedited debris clean-up.Severe Storms, including ice storms, for example, can generate much more vegetative debris than a community typically manages annually.FEMA states 100 acres of land are needed to process one million cubic yards of debris. The figure above depicts an 100-acre debris management site for nonhazardous debris with a small area for hazardous waste brought in by mistake.
14General Environmental, Safety, and Logistical Considerations Environmental monitoring.Vegetative debris may require monitoring of groundwater, air, fires, etc.Areas used to stage mixed, C&D, or hazardous wastes may need more extensive monitoringRemoval of debris from the site in a timely manner.Putrescible, mixed, harmful, and hazardous wastes should not be stored for extended periods of time.These types of debris should be removed daily or as soon as practical to prevent odors, vectors, human health hazards, and/or environmental releases.Limiting site access to ensure that the site is secure.General environmental, safety, and logistical considerations include:• Environmental monitoring. Areas that were used to stage vegetative debris do nottypically require groundwater monitoring, but should be monitored for fires. Areasused to stage mixed, C&D, or hazardous wastes may need more extensivemonitoring. Consult with state officials for recommendations.• Removal of debris from the site in a timely manner. Putrescible, mixed, harmful, andhazardous wastes should not be stored for extended periods of time. These types ofdebris should be removed daily or as soon as practical to prevent odors, vectors,human health hazards, and/or environmental releases.• Limiting site access to ensure that the site is secure. Some wastes that presenthigher levels of concern should have additional storage controls and securitymeasures.Evaluating traffic logistics on and around the storage site.• Minimizing noise disruptions to acceptable hours.Evaluating traffic logistics on and around the storage site.Minimizing noise disruptions to acceptable hours.Hazardous waste will cause many more considerations….
15Develop a Communication Plan Develop a communication plan to communicate effectively with the debris management team, and all other entities, including the general public regarding the debris removal process.The chain-of-command, as well as how decisions will be communicated through the chain, need to be clearly articulated.Hold frequent meetings after the disaster to communicate events and problems, as well as solutions.Establish a reliable method to communicate with police, health officials, and other emergency responders to ensure debris is collected in a manner protective of public safety.Establish a communication strategy with major industrial and commercial enterprises in the area that may generate large amounts of wastes.All communication should be timely, consistent, updated, and use language that is not overly technical.
16Communicating with the Public Informing the public about debris management before disaster strikes should make dealing with the aftermath easier.Residents typically want debris to be removed as quickly as possible, and may resort to illegal burning, dumping, and other improper management methods.Providing public education before and after the disaster can curb this response.Inform the community when, where, and how debris collection will commence, when normal collection is likely to resume, and provide special instructions for reporting and separating disaster debris at the curbUse a combination of radio/television announcements, flyers, websites, telephone, etc. to be effective in getting the message out.“Everyone wanted their streets cleared as soon as possible,” Bruner said afterHurricanes Frances and Jeanne. “But our message was consistent; be patient and our crewswill be there.”
17Another public information tool developed during Katrina.
18A Quick Public Message Could Be.. “Don’t “CHEAT” The Environment”“C “ - Construction and Demolition, C&D“H “ - Household Hazardous Waste“E” - Electronic Waste“A” - Appliances, (White Goods)“T” - Trees or Vegetative DebrisCommunicating your plans and needs for your debris removal program is important. This is public information message used to gain the public’s help in sorting debris by waste stream.Segregate the debris by waste streamCurbside Segregation is Most Efficient
19Create a Disaster Debris Prevention Strategy Disaster debris prevention should be considered in a disaster debris management plan to reduce the generation of debris.Include an education outreach program to educate the public on how they may decrease the amount of damage that their property might suffer in a natural disaster.Hazard Mitigation Plans discuss preventative measures aimed at reducing the generation of disaster debris.
20CREATE A DEBRIS REMOVAL STRATEGY Begin debris removal as soon as it is safe for personnel to be out in the community.The debris removal strategy should discuss how each type of debris should be segregated (where applicable), collected, and managed.Ensuring that the debris is removed in a timely fashion is important to protect the safety of the community and to return the community back to normal.The first step should be the clearing of roadways and ensuring that emergency vehicles can travel effectively.
21Emergency Debris Clearance Prioritize and clear access for:Police, Fire, and emergency medical responders and vehiclesWater supply, power service, sanitary sewer repairsOperating Emergency SheltersRestoring CommunicationDistribution of water, ice, & food to victimsEnsure political and socioeconomic balance
22Include Methods for Implementing the Strategy Following the initial clearing, there should be a plan for collection priorities.Debris that may pose an immediate threat to human health and the environment should be a first priority in collection.Following that, the strategy should discuss materials that are priorities for recycling or reuse.While recycling should be pursued to the extent possible, it is likely that many materials will be disposed.“Don’t Make it More Complicated than it is” - whenever possible load disaster debris one time and deliver it to the final disposal site. Often that won’t be the most efficient solution.
23HARMFUL MATERIALS IDENTIFICATION AND HANDLING Examples of materials handled as hazardous wastes include:automotive/marine batteries,pesticide containers,explosives,automotive oils, fuels and fluids,solvents, paint thinners and strippers andcompressed gas containers.Separate these materials into appropriate categories.During the course of a natural disaster, materials are generated that have the potential to harm human health or the environment.A plan for controlling and diverting hazardous materials from the debris stream, including handling procedures, helps avoid the release of hazardous constituents into the environment.Separating these materials into appropriate categories prevents incompatible materials from reacting.
24These Types of Debris will Require Special Handling and Management Household Hazardous Waste (HHW)Household items that display one or more of the following characteristics – ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity.Asbestos-containing material (ACM)such as asbestos pipe wrap, siding, ceiling tiles, and other building materials, typically found in older buildings.PCBsfound in older (pre-1979) transformers attached to downed utility poles.Storage tanksfound both above ground and underground, containing petroleum or hazardous substances that, if released, could pose significant risk to health, safety, and the environment.White GoodsPutrid food must be carefully handled during removal, collection and disposal as garbage.Refrigerants such as freon must be reclaimed for recycling by certified technicians.Some metal units are suitable for recycling.Electronic Wasteinclude televisions, desktop and laptop computers, computer attachments, stereo equipment, and cell phones may contain up to 4 lbs of heavy metals (e.g., lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury, beryllium, nickel, or zinc).Firearms and ammunitionHousehold items that display one or more of the following characteristics - ignitability,corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity - are known as household hazardous wastes (HHW).Examples include motor oil, automobile batteries, paints and solvents, household cleaners anddrain openers, swimming pool chemicals, pesticides, and compressed gas tanks (such as propaneand oxygen). EPA advises that these types of debris be segregated for special handling.PCBs were domestically manufactured from 1929 until their manufacture was banned in 1979.
25RECYCLING OPTIONSInclude a strategy for reuse, recycling, and mulching or composting.Recycling and reuse will cut costs, and provide a valuable material resource.Set priorities for reusing and recycling disaster debris materials.Identify re-use options in advance.Any disaster debris management plan include a strategy for reuse, recycling, and mulching/composting.Due to the potentially large volumes of material produced in a natural disaster, recycling and reuse will lessen the burden on disposal facilities, cut costs, and provide a valuable material resource.Disaster debris management plans set priorities for reusing and recycling disaster debris materials.Innovative reuse options can be identified in advance rather than trying to find appropriate options after the disaster occurs.A list of recycling centers statewide can be found on the State of Alaska DEC – Solid Waste Website at:
26What can be Recycled?Building materials, such as brick, blocks, concrete, lumber, asphalt tilesRoad and Bridge materials, asphalt pavement, concrete, and steelVegetative debris (or green waste)Sediment, sand, silt, or soils, unless contaminated.Decaying or rotting wastes (including animal carcasses), such as fruits, vegetables, meats, dairy products can be composted, rendered, etc.Treated wood, such as wooden utility poles, other lumber that may be chemically-treatedAutomobiles and Boats, may be recycled.White goods (household appliances) stoves, refrigerators, washers and dryers, and hot water heatersElectronics waste, televisions, desktop and laptop computers, stereo equipment, and cell phonesBuilding materials, such as brick, blocks, concrete, lumber, asphalt tiles, etc., minus lead based paint and pressure-treated wood.Road and Bridge materials, such as asphalt pavement, concrete, and steelVegetative debris (or green waste) consists of uprooted trees, broken tree limbs, stumps, brush, and leaves.Sediment, such as sand, silt, or soils, unless contaminated.Putrescible wastes (including animal carcasses), such as fruits, vegetables, meats, dairy products, etc. from grocery stores, restaurants, schools, hospitals, and residences can be composted, rendered, etc.Treated wood, such as wooden utility poles, other lumber that may be chemically-treated includes decks, fences, landscaping materials, wood bridges, and railroad ties.Automobiles and Boats, may be recycled.White goods (household appliances) such as stoves, refrigerators, washers and dryers, and hot water heaters can be segregated for recycling.Electronics waste, such as televisions, desktop and laptop computers, computer attachments, stereo equipment, and cell phones, may be reused or recycled.
27WASTE-TO-ENERGY OPTIONS Natural disasters can create large amounts of vegetative debris that could be used as a fuel or energy source.Most of this material is left to decay, burned in place or hauled to landfills.Using biomass to create energy instead of disposing it has both environmental and economic benefits.Saves landfill capacityReduces air emissionsProvides a source of heating fuel for residentsPromotes a good image to the public
28REDUCTION OPTIONSIf not recycling, Debris Management Plans should evaluate methods to reduce debris prior to disposal.There are two main types of reduction methods:Incineration - it has up to a 95 percent reduction rate.Chipping/Grinding/Shredding –The reduction rate could be up to 75%.If not recycling, Debris Management Plans should evaluate methods to reduce debris prior to disposal.There are two main types of reduction methods:Incineration - Burning vegetative debris is a popular reduction method since it has up to a 95 percent reduction rate.Chipping/Grinding/Shredding – The second most common type of reduction method is to chip or grind disaster-related vegetative debris. The reduction rate could be up to 75%.
29A Typical Debris Reduction Site MetalsConstruction & Demolition(C&D) DebrisC&DSmallTrucksMixed Vegetative DebrisOne design feature shown on this diagram I suggest changing is to provide for entrance and exit traffic to both pass by a tower area comprised of multiple towers if needed. If not use one tower to inspect incoming traffic and monitor outgoing traffic.A functional and safe Debris Reduction Site does not just happen.There are design considerations important to establishing a safe and efficient site:Consider prevailing windTraffic flowHighway accessSurface drainageLoad inspectionEnvironmental considerationsComplete a baseline environmental site surveyTowerCleanVegetative DebrisHTWMulchBurn PitsTubGrindersAsh PitAir Curtain Burners
30OPEN BURNINGOpen burning includes both burning debris in an open pit and burning debris in an air curtain incinerator (ACI).Air Curtain Burners do not burn anything. They control the results of something burning.All open burning should be conducted in accordance with state regulations.Burn only clean vegetative materialNo haz mat, asbestos, pressure treated wood, etc.BurnerAir Curtain“Box”Burn areaOpen burning often is subject to significant public concern. State/local officials may allow it when needed if storage is lacking and debris amounts are large.Wood Debris
31DISPOSAL OPTIONSThe most cost-efficient measure is usually to make use of the applicant’s own or normally utilized landfills, if space is available.Most disaster debris is not hazardous and can be disposed, as appropriate, in a C&D landfill, MSW landfill, or nonhazardous solid waste combustor regulated by a state agency.Hazardous or Asbestos-Containing material will need special disposal.Mixed debris typically includes a mixture of all types of debris will need special attention.
32Debris MonitoringDebris monitoring throughout the debris management program.Account for debris during the removal, transport, and disposal process beginning with the “load ticket” at the point of origin.Monitoring at disposal facilities ensures:unscrupulous contractors or residents are not allowed to dispose debris not suitable for the landfillcontamination from hazardous wastes and other debris of concern does not occur.contractor safety on the site.accurate and validated loads are deposited.Thus, when a truck enters the staging or disposal areas, spotters check the load for volume and contaminants not allowed at that site.Debris monitoring throughout the debris management program.Account for debris during the removal, transport, and disposal process beginning with the “load ticket” at the point of origin.Monitoring at disposal facilities ensures:unscrupulous contractors or residents are not allowed to dispose debris not suitable for the landfillcontamination from hazardous wastes and other debris of concern does not occur.contractor safety on the site.accurate and validated loads are deposited.Thus, when a truck enters the staging or disposal areas, spotters check the load for volume and contaminants not allowed at that site.
33State of Alaska Debris Management Plan The State of Alaska has recently completed the State of Alaska Debris Management Plan, dated AugustThe plan includes estimated quantities of debris by region for flood, earthquake, and tsunami events.August 2009
34FEMA Debris GuidanceFEMA guidance is available that could help in developing your debris management plan:FEMA 325 – Debris Management GuideFEMA 9580 series Debris Operations Job Aids and Fact SheetsFEMA E 202 – Debris Management Course
35Other Federal Debris Guidance Other federal guidance on debris management is available from:USACEUSEPANOAA/USCGUSDA/NRCS
36Questions??? State Emergency Coordination Center Disaster DeclarationQuestions???State Emergency Coordination Center(800) (24 hours)Claude E. Denver or George Coyle (907)Tri-Annual Preparedness Conference