Presentation on theme: "Wireless Telemetry Made Easy Bringing Environmental Data to Your Desktop Presented by Gregg Gustafson January 2010."— Presentation transcript:
Wireless Telemetry Made Easy Bringing Environmental Data to Your Desktop Presented by Gregg Gustafson January 2010
Introduction Introduction to Speaker Introduction to Speaker Overview Overview Components of a Wireless Telemetry System Components of a Wireless Telemetry System – Sensors – Transmission System – Software Demonstration Demonstration
Gregg Gustafson Founder and owner of INW - Instrumentation Northwest, Inc. Founder and owner of INW - Instrumentation Northwest, Inc. Intimately involved with environmental equipment design and manufacturing business since 1982 Intimately involved with environmental equipment design and manufacturing business since 1982 Holder of several patents in the environmental water industry. Holder of several patents in the environmental water industry. Degree in Chemistry from University of Washington Degree in Chemistry from University of Washington
Increased evidence for global warming Increased evidence for global warming Greater awareness of dangers of pollution Greater awareness of dangers of pollution Security concerns – threats of terrorism Security concerns – threats of terrorism Environmental water concerns increasing
The Dilemma Waste disposal sites – require long term monitoring Waste disposal sites – require long term monitoring Coastal wells – salt water intrusion Coastal wells – salt water intrusion Industrial sites - accidents Industrial sites - accidents Superfund cleanup sites Superfund cleanup sites Need for data from many locations
The Dilemma Threats to municipal water supplies – must take quick action Threats to municipal water supplies – must take quick action Pollution incidents – need to know quickly in order to mitigate damages Pollution incidents – need to know quickly in order to mitigate damages Need for frequent and timely data
The Dilemma Rising wages Rising wages Transportation costs Transportation costs Less efficient use of trained personnel Less efficient use of trained personnel Sending personnel to gather data costs $$$
The Dilemma Extensive environmental damage Extensive environmental damage Large cleanup costs Large cleanup costs Hefty fines for non-compliance with regulations Hefty fines for non-compliance with regulations Consequences of lack of data
What Can be Done? Smart water monitoring sensors Smart water monitoring sensors Wireless telemetry Wireless telemetry Innovative software Innovative software Environmental data delivered to your desktop – reliably and inexpensively
Sampling – Technician goes to site – Draws water from the well or stream – Returns the sample to a lab for analysis – Data is from time of collection, only
Historical Perspective Submerged Sensors – Technician goes to site – Reads sensor with volt or current meter – Returns data to office for analysis – Data is from time of collection, only
Historical Perspective Submerged Sensors with Dataloggers – Technician goes to site – Uploads data – Returns data to office for analysis – Data is now from a range of time, but cannot be seen until returned to office
Today… As with cancer… Early detection Easy to cure Late detection Impossible to cure
Today… …so with pollution Early detection Impossible to clean up Easy to clean up Late detection
Today… Decision makers need Decision makers need – More data – From more locations – More frequently Wireless data collection systems can fill this need!
Technical Benefits – Provides real time data on demand – Assures accurate coordinated data across entire sites – Enables monitoring of relatively inaccessible locations – Improves safety – less need to enter hazardous areas Wireless Telemetry
Economic Benefits – Reduces expensive trips to each location – Allows better focusing of staff – Maximizes early detection of problems Less cleanup cost Less environmental damage Less downtime – Better information = better decisions
Take Measurements – Useful parameters Can sensors measure what is needed? – Quality measurements Can sensors provide data that is accurate, stable, and traceable? – Data storage How do sensors store measured data? – Ruggedness Are todays sensors rugged enough for harsh environments and rough handling? A Data Collection System Must…
Provide Information – How do sensors transmit the measurements to decision makers? – How can this information be displayed? – What tools can be used to analyze the information? A Data Collection System Must…
The Challenge How do I select and install a wireless telemetry system? Today we will cover – Selection and installation of sensors – Selection and installation of transmission systems – Powerful software to tie it all together
Sensors Sensors in your car…. Sensors in your car…. – Speedometer – Fuel Gauge – Tachometer Why are these sensors important??? Why are these sensors important??? As an analogy….
Sensors They help the driver make better decisions. They help the driver make better decisions. – Speedometer Prevent getting a ticket for speeding – Fuel gauge Prevent walking for gas – Tachometer Gauge most efficient use of engine speed
Sensors Sensors can be just as important to decision makers in the environmental field as they are to drivers of a car.
Sensors Measures useful parameters and provides information to help make better decisions. Definition of a sensor Definition of a sensor Sensors must: Sensors must: – Take measurements – Provide information – Be cost effective
Sensors - Measuring – Useful parameters – Accuracy – Drift – Hysteresis – Range – Traceability – Calibration – Data Storage – Immunity to: Temperature Error Noise Shock & Abuse Harsh Environments Leaking Sensors must take measurements Sensors must take measurements
Sensors – Measuring Useful Parameters – what do you need to measure? Useful Parameters – what do you need to measure? – Pressure – Temperature – pH – ISE – Redox – Conductivity – Others?
Sensors – Measuring Accuracy Accuracy – Ratio of error to full-scale output (+/- percent of FSO). Static accuracy includes the effects of non-linearity, non-repeatability and hysteresis at room temperature. Expressed as a percentage of FSO. EX: Accuracy 0.1% FSO
Sensors – Measuring Immunity to Drift Immunity to Drift – Short-term drift – Long-term drift
Sensors – Measuring Hysteresis Hysteresis – The maximum difference in the Output Signal, at a given pressure, when first approached with increasing and then decreasing pressure. Typically, errors associated with non-linearity, non- repeatability and hysteresis are grouped together in one specification. EX: Hysteresis 0.1%
Sensors – Measuring Range Range – Term used to describe the full-scale output of a sensor. EX: 30 PSI for a pressure sensor
Sensors – Measuring Traceability Traceability – Traceability is ability to document an unbroken chain of measurements relating an instrument's measurements to a known standard. Traceability can be used to certify an instrument's accuracy relative to a known standard. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traceability
Sensors – Measuring Calibration Calibration – Process by which the output of a sensor is matched with a specific known value within the span of the sensor.
Sensors – Measuring Data Storage Data Storage – Recording media used to retain measured data points for some period of time. – Volatile vs. non-volatile Non-volatile retains data even when power fails.
Sensors – Measuring Immunity to Temperature Error Immunity to Temperature Error – Industry standard compensation methods – Temperature compensation methods
Sensors – Measuring Immunity to Noise Immunity to Noise – Shielding – Filtering – Grounding
Sensors – Measuring Immunity to Shock & Abuse Immunity to Shock & Abuse – Stainless steel vs. plastic housings – Rugged connectors – Good craftsmanship
Sensors – Measuring Immunity to Harsh Environments Immunity to Harsh Environments – Stainless steel – – Stainless steel – strong, corrosion resistant – Titanium – – Titanium – light, strong, corrosion resistant – Viton ® – – Viton ® – resistant to heat and aggressive chemicals – Delrin ® – – Delrin ® – low friction, wear-resistant plastic – Teflon ® – – Teflon ® – low friction, non-reactive to most chemicals – Tefzel ® – – Tefzel ® – similar to Teflon but with high abrasion resistance Viton, Delrin, Teflon, and Tefzel are registered trademarks of DuPont
Sensors – Measuring Immunity to Leaking Immunity to Leaking – Corrosion resistant sealing materials – Good craftsmanship – Sealing methods
Sensors – Cost Effective Sensors Must Be Cost Effective Sensors Must Be Cost Effective – Miniaturization – Standardization – Low-power – Real time data delivered to your desk
Sensors – Cost Effective Miniaturization Miniaturization – Sensing elements Inexpensive, miniature, many types – On-board computer Complex, repeatable test sequences Sophisticated calibration and temperature compensation – Non-volatile memory No data lost on power fail
Sensors – Cost Effective Standardization Standardization – RS485 Network many sensors from one control point – Modbus ®, SDI-12, other standards Reliable Easy to program Known in industry Modbus is a registered trademark of Schneider Electric.
Sensors – Cost Effective Low-power Low-power – State-of-the-art electronics Very minute power drains – Sleep modes Wake only to take readings or communicate to outside world – Small internal batteries Can run many sensors for a year or more – Small, inexpensive solar panels Run virtually forever
Sensors – Installation Above Ground Monument Sensor Cable Well casing Strain relief Desiccant Service port Well cap Monument Steel or fiberglass monument Steel or fiberglass monument
Steel or fiberglass flush mounted lid Steel or fiberglass flush mounted lid Sensors – Installation Below Ground Monument Sensor Cable Well casing Strain relief Desiccant* Service port Well cap MonumentLid *Prone to flooding!! Keep desiccant dry or use absolute sensors.
Above or below ground Above or below ground Sensors – Installation Cluster Well Installation Monument Top view Junction box with service port Wells with sensors at different levels
Sensors – Installation Do not drop into well – Lower gently to prevent damage to end of sensor.
Sensors – Installation Do not scrape cable over edge of well – May nick or fray cable.
Sensors – Installation Do not bend cable sharply – This may close off vent tube*. *Gauge (vented) pressure sensors contain a vent tube inside the cable. If this vent tube is closed off, readings will be wrong.
Sensors – Installation Install in vertical position – Off vertical may introduce an offset.
Sensors – Installation Do not lower into mud or silt – This may clog or blind sensor.
Use a strain relief kit to prevent excess pulling on the cable. Sensors – Installation
Install so that service connector stays dry. Sensors – Installation
Install so as to keep desiccant dry. Sensors – Installation
Replace desiccant when it turns pink. Sensors – Installation Pink = Bad Blue = Good
Must – Connect to the sensors – Transmit data to a central location
Transmission Systems May consist of: – Radios Single sets for up to about 5 miles Repeater networks for extended coverage – Cellular Modems Anywhere that has cellular coverage Dialup modems or IP modems – Both Networks combining both radios and cellular modems offer great flexibility
Typical Installation Transmission Systems - Radios
Base Radio connected to a PC or laptop. Remote Radio connected to sensors. Transmission Systems - Radios
– License free – 900 mHZ or 2.4 GHz bands – Range of 300 feet to 5 miles – Low power – run for months on alkaline batteries or virtually forever on solar power – Weatherproof enclosures designed for easy mounting – Can communicate with multiple sensors Transmission Systems - Radios
Sample Network 1 Radio Host, 1 Radio Remote, 1 Sensor Transmission Systems - Radios
Sample Network – to reach longer distance 1 Radio Host, 2 Radio Repeaters, 1 Radio Remote, 1 Sensor Transmission Systems - Radios
Sample Network – to avoid an obstacle 1 Radio Host, 1 Radio Repeater, 1 Radio Remote, 1 Sensor Transmission Systems - Radios
To think about when selecting radios: – Power Concerns – Site Survey Transmission Systems - Radios
Power usage depends on two things – Power requirements of radio – Time spent communicating Sample power consumption using 8 AA batteries* * May vary by brand and type of radio Transmission Systems - Radios
Various Types of Power Available – Alkaline Cells – Solar – Rechargeable Lead Acid Transmission Systems - Radios
Site Survey – You may need to do a site survey to determine exactly what you need in your radio transmission system. Transmission Systems - Radios
Site Survey – Do you have a clear line of site between your radios?
Transmission Systems - Radios Site Survey – Do you need repeaters to get around obstacles or reach a further distance? Vegetation? Buildings?
Transmission Systems - Radios Site Survey – Try them out to determine best location for radios.
Transmission Systems - Radios Live Demonstration Radios
– Not limited in distance, as are radios – Allow site monitoring from anywhere phone or Internet service is available – Dial-in or Internet – Cellular or wired Transmission Systems - Modems
Cellular Carrier Considerations – As with your voice cell modem, data cell modems must be within a carriers coverage range for good communications Transmission Systems - Modems
Modems require more power than your typical radio system. – Solar – Line Power Transmission Systems - Modems
Auto Answer Auto Answer Serial Communications Serial Communications – Baud rate, parity, data bits, stop bits Configuring the modem… All modems will need these or similar settings: Transmission Systems - Modems
Telephone number Telephone number IP Address (Static or Dynamic) IP Address (Static or Dynamic) Port Number Port Number Other settings as required by your specific modem and/or carrier Other settings as required by your specific modem and/or carrier Configuring the modem… You may also need to set: Transmission Systems - Modems
Configuring the modem… Note that every modem and every carrier is different. You may need to refer to your modem manufacturer and/or service carrier for further information. Transmission Systems - Modems
IP Modems IP Modems – Communicates via the Internet Dial-up Modems Dial-up Modems – Dial in on telephone network Two modem options… Transmission Systems - Modems
Typical Dial-up Installation Transmission Systems - Modems Dial out from PC with modem
Dial Up Modems Transmission Systems - Modems Dial up modems are accessed by dialing a certain telephone number Dial up modems are accessed by dialing a certain telephone number Usually wired phone lines Usually wired phone lines
Modem on your computer Modem on your computer Modem connected to the sensor Modem connected to the sensor You will need… Transmission Systems - Modems
Typical IP Installation Transmission Systems - Modems Connect via the Internet
IP Modems Transmission Systems - Modems IP modems are accessed by connecting to the Internet from your computer IP modems are accessed by connecting to the Internet from your computer Usually Cellular Usually Cellular
Internet connection on your computer Internet connection on your computer IP modem connected to the sensor IP modem connected to the sensor (For INW modems) Cellular data account with either a static or a dynamic IP address (For INW modems) Cellular data account with either a static or a dynamic IP address (For INW modems) Serial port redirection program. (For INW modems) Serial port redirection program. You will need… Transmission Systems - Modems
The Internet uses IP addresses to route data to and from specific destinations. Example: 166.201.258.014 The Internet uses IP addresses to route data to and from specific destinations. Example: 166.201.258.014 Static vs. Dynamic IP Addresses… Transmission Systems - Modems
A Static IP address is a fixed number that is assigned to your modem only. A Static IP address is a fixed number that is assigned to your modem only. Static vs. Dynamic IP Addresses… Transmission Systems - Modems
A Dynamic IP address is an IP address that is assigned to your modem only while you are using it. It is then released for use by others. A Dynamic IP address is an IP address that is assigned to your modem only while you are using it. It is then released for use by others. Instead of a number being assigned to your modem, you would have a domain name, such as me.eairlink.com. Instead of a number being assigned to your modem, you would have a domain name, such as me.eairlink.com. Static vs. Dynamic IP Addresses… Transmission Systems - Modems
IP Managers and DNS servers manage the assigning of IP addresses to specific domain names as needed. IP Managers and DNS servers manage the assigning of IP addresses to specific domain names as needed. Details for this support is different with different carriers. Contact your carrier and/or modem supplier for details. Contact your carrier and/or modem supplier for details. Static vs. Dynamic IP Addresses… Transmission Systems - Modems
Live Demonstration Cell Modem Transmission Systems - Modems
Transmission Systems - Blended Blended Systems
Powerful, flexible systems Modems Radios = + Transmission Systems - Blended
Sample Network Complex network including radios and cellular modem Transmission Systems - Blended
Enclosure choice depends on: Enclosure choice depends on: – Choice of equipment (radio, cell modem, or both) – Choice of power supplies – Choice of antennas – Indoors or outdoors – Needed weather protection – Needed vandalism protection Variety of Enclosures
Transmission Systems Sample Single Radio Enclosure Power Switch Sensor Connection Antenna Material: Copolymer * Size approximate. Drawing not to scale. For illustration only. 5.5 x 3 x 2.5*
Transmission Systems Sample Radio/Cellular Enclosure * Size approximate. Drawing not to scale. For illustration only. Material: Copolymer or Fiberglass Sensor Connectors Antennas 13.5 x 11.5 x 6*
Transmission Systems Mounting choice depends on: Mounting choice depends on: – Enclosure type – Indoors or outdoors – Choice of antennas – Site layout Variety of Mounting Possibilities
Transmission Systems Sample Mounting on Wellhead – Strap to wellhead
Transmission Systems Sample Mounting on Pole – Strap enclosure to pole – Bury pole and strap to well head for support – Use guy wires as needed
Transmission Systems Above Ground Monument Radio Strap to side of well head. Use fiberglass (not steel) monument
Use fiberglass (not steel) flush mounted lid Transmission Systems Below Ground Monument Lid Radio Mount on bottom of lid.
Transmission Systems May need nearby repeater to increase transmission distance. Below Ground Monument
Important for Important for – Safety – Measurement accuracy Transmission Systems Grounding
Power spike will find path of least resistance to earth ground Power spike will find path of least resistance to earth ground – Person – Equipment – Grounding system Transmission Systems Safety
Natural resistance in the earth can cause current to flow between different grounding points. Natural resistance in the earth can cause current to flow between different grounding points. – Causes inaccurate readings! Transmission Systems Accuracy
Single ground point creates a single low resistance path to ground Single ground point creates a single low resistance path to ground – Safety! – More accurate readings Transmission Systems Solution to Both
Ground rod Ground rod – 6 – 8 foot copper sheathed ground rod in most locations – Sand, dry dirt, rocks, may require more – contact an engineer Surge protector Surge protector – For external antenna systems Transmission Systems
Seek professional help before installing your system Seek professional help before installing your system – U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission – National Electrical Code – Electrical engineer with experience in grounding issues Transmission Systems Grounding can be tricky!
Transmission Systems Security Physical security Physical security Data security Data security