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Wireless Telemetry Made Easy Bringing Environmental Data to Your Desktop Presented by Gregg Gustafson January 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Wireless Telemetry Made Easy Bringing Environmental Data to Your Desktop Presented by Gregg Gustafson January 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wireless Telemetry Made Easy Bringing Environmental Data to Your Desktop Presented by Gregg Gustafson January 2010

2 Introduction Introduction to Speaker Introduction to Speaker Overview Overview Components of a Wireless Telemetry System Components of a Wireless Telemetry System – Sensors – Transmission System – Software Demonstration Demonstration

3 Gregg Gustafson Founder and owner of INW - Instrumentation Northwest, Inc. Founder and owner of INW - Instrumentation Northwest, Inc. Intimately involved with environmental equipment design and manufacturing business since 1982 Intimately involved with environmental equipment design and manufacturing business since 1982 Holder of several patents in the environmental water industry. Holder of several patents in the environmental water industry. Degree in Chemistry from University of Washington Degree in Chemistry from University of Washington

4 Overview

5 Overview The Dilemma

6 Increased evidence for global warming Increased evidence for global warming Greater awareness of dangers of pollution Greater awareness of dangers of pollution Security concerns – threats of terrorism Security concerns – threats of terrorism Environmental water concerns increasing

7 The Dilemma Waste disposal sites – require long term monitoring Waste disposal sites – require long term monitoring Coastal wells – salt water intrusion Coastal wells – salt water intrusion Industrial sites - accidents Industrial sites - accidents Superfund cleanup sites Superfund cleanup sites Need for data from many locations

8 The Dilemma Threats to municipal water supplies – must take quick action Threats to municipal water supplies – must take quick action Pollution incidents – need to know quickly in order to mitigate damages Pollution incidents – need to know quickly in order to mitigate damages Need for frequent and timely data

9 The Dilemma Rising wages Rising wages Transportation costs Transportation costs Less efficient use of trained personnel Less efficient use of trained personnel Sending personnel to gather data costs $$$

10 The Dilemma Extensive environmental damage Extensive environmental damage Large cleanup costs Large cleanup costs Hefty fines for non-compliance with regulations Hefty fines for non-compliance with regulations Consequences of lack of data

11 What Can be Done? Smart water monitoring sensors Smart water monitoring sensors Wireless telemetry Wireless telemetry Innovative software Innovative software Environmental data delivered to your desktop – reliably and inexpensively

12 Overview Historical Perspective

13 Sampling – Technician goes to site – Draws water from the well or stream – Returns the sample to a lab for analysis – Data is from time of collection, only

14 Historical Perspective Submerged Sensors – Technician goes to site – Reads sensor with volt or current meter – Returns data to office for analysis – Data is from time of collection, only

15 Historical Perspective Submerged Sensors with Dataloggers – Technician goes to site – Uploads data – Returns data to office for analysis – Data is now from a range of time, but cannot be seen until returned to office

16 Overview Today…

17 Today… As with cancer… Early detection Easy to cure Late detection Impossible to cure

18 Today… …so with pollution Early detection Impossible to clean up Easy to clean up Late detection

19 Today… Decision makers need Decision makers need – More data – From more locations – More frequently Wireless data collection systems can fill this need!

20 Technical Benefits – Provides real time data on demand – Assures accurate coordinated data across entire sites – Enables monitoring of relatively inaccessible locations – Improves safety – less need to enter hazardous areas Wireless Telemetry

21 Economic Benefits – Reduces expensive trips to each location – Allows better focusing of staff – Maximizes early detection of problems Less cleanup cost Less environmental damage Less downtime – Better information = better decisions

22 Take Measurements – Useful parameters Can sensors measure what is needed? – Quality measurements Can sensors provide data that is accurate, stable, and traceable? – Data storage How do sensors store measured data? – Ruggedness Are todays sensors rugged enough for harsh environments and rough handling? A Data Collection System Must…

23 Provide Information – How do sensors transmit the measurements to decision makers? – How can this information be displayed? – What tools can be used to analyze the information? A Data Collection System Must…

24 The Challenge How do I select and install a wireless telemetry system? Today we will cover – Selection and installation of sensors – Selection and installation of transmission systems – Powerful software to tie it all together

25 Components of a Wireless Telemetry System

26 Wireless Monitoring Systems Three Components – Sensors – Transmission System – Software

27 Sensors

28 Sensors Sensors in your car…. Sensors in your car…. – Speedometer – Fuel Gauge – Tachometer Why are these sensors important??? Why are these sensors important??? As an analogy….

29 Sensors They help the driver make better decisions. They help the driver make better decisions. – Speedometer Prevent getting a ticket for speeding – Fuel gauge Prevent walking for gas – Tachometer Gauge most efficient use of engine speed

30 Sensors Sensors can be just as important to decision makers in the environmental field as they are to drivers of a car.

31 Sensors Measures useful parameters and provides information to help make better decisions. Definition of a sensor Definition of a sensor Sensors must: Sensors must: – Take measurements – Provide information – Be cost effective

32 Sensors - Measuring – Useful parameters – Accuracy – Drift – Hysteresis – Range – Traceability – Calibration – Data Storage – Immunity to: Temperature Error Noise Shock & Abuse Harsh Environments Leaking Sensors must take measurements Sensors must take measurements

33 Sensors – Measuring Useful Parameters – what do you need to measure? Useful Parameters – what do you need to measure? – Pressure – Temperature – pH – ISE – Redox – Conductivity – Others?

34 Sensors – Measuring Accuracy Accuracy – Ratio of error to full-scale output (+/- percent of FSO). Static accuracy includes the effects of non-linearity, non-repeatability and hysteresis at room temperature. Expressed as a percentage of FSO. EX: Accuracy 0.1% FSO

35 Sensors – Measuring Immunity to Drift Immunity to Drift – Short-term drift – Long-term drift

36 Sensors – Measuring Hysteresis Hysteresis – The maximum difference in the Output Signal, at a given pressure, when first approached with increasing and then decreasing pressure. Typically, errors associated with non-linearity, non- repeatability and hysteresis are grouped together in one specification. EX: Hysteresis 0.1%

37 Sensors – Measuring Range Range – Term used to describe the full-scale output of a sensor. EX: 30 PSI for a pressure sensor

38 Sensors – Measuring Traceability Traceability – Traceability is ability to document an unbroken chain of measurements relating an instrument's measurements to a known standard. Traceability can be used to certify an instrument's accuracy relative to a known standard.

39 Sensors – Measuring Calibration Calibration – Process by which the output of a sensor is matched with a specific known value within the span of the sensor.

40 Sensors – Measuring Data Storage Data Storage – Recording media used to retain measured data points for some period of time. – Volatile vs. non-volatile Non-volatile retains data even when power fails.

41 Sensors – Measuring Immunity to Temperature Error Immunity to Temperature Error – Industry standard compensation methods – Temperature compensation methods

42 Sensors – Measuring Immunity to Noise Immunity to Noise – Shielding – Filtering – Grounding

43 Sensors – Measuring Immunity to Shock & Abuse Immunity to Shock & Abuse – Stainless steel vs. plastic housings – Rugged connectors – Good craftsmanship

44 Sensors – Measuring Immunity to Harsh Environments Immunity to Harsh Environments – Stainless steel – – Stainless steel – strong, corrosion resistant – Titanium – – Titanium – light, strong, corrosion resistant – Viton ® – – Viton ® – resistant to heat and aggressive chemicals – Delrin ® – – Delrin ® – low friction, wear-resistant plastic – Teflon ® – – Teflon ® – low friction, non-reactive to most chemicals – Tefzel ® – – Tefzel ® – similar to Teflon but with high abrasion resistance Viton, Delrin, Teflon, and Tefzel are registered trademarks of DuPont

45 Sensors – Measuring Immunity to Leaking Immunity to Leaking – Corrosion resistant sealing materials – Good craftsmanship – Sealing methods

46 Sensors – Cost Effective Sensors Must Be Cost Effective Sensors Must Be Cost Effective – Miniaturization – Standardization – Low-power – Real time data delivered to your desk

47 Sensors – Cost Effective Miniaturization Miniaturization – Sensing elements Inexpensive, miniature, many types – On-board computer Complex, repeatable test sequences Sophisticated calibration and temperature compensation – Non-volatile memory No data lost on power fail

48 Sensors – Cost Effective Standardization Standardization – RS485 Network many sensors from one control point – Modbus ®, SDI-12, other standards Reliable Easy to program Known in industry Modbus is a registered trademark of Schneider Electric.

49 Sensors – Cost Effective Low-power Low-power – State-of-the-art electronics Very minute power drains – Sleep modes Wake only to take readings or communicate to outside world – Small internal batteries Can run many sensors for a year or more – Small, inexpensive solar panels Run virtually forever

50 Sensors Sensor Installation

51 Sensors – Installation Above Ground Monument Sensor Cable Well casing Strain relief Desiccant Service port Well cap Monument Steel or fiberglass monument Steel or fiberglass monument

52 Steel or fiberglass flush mounted lid Steel or fiberglass flush mounted lid Sensors – Installation Below Ground Monument Sensor Cable Well casing Strain relief Desiccant* Service port Well cap MonumentLid *Prone to flooding!! Keep desiccant dry or use absolute sensors.

53 Above or below ground Above or below ground Sensors – Installation Cluster Well Installation Monument Top view Junction box with service port Wells with sensors at different levels

54 Sensors Installation Dos and Donts

55 Sensors – Installation Do not drop into well – Lower gently to prevent damage to end of sensor.

56 Sensors – Installation Do not scrape cable over edge of well – May nick or fray cable.

57 Sensors – Installation Do not bend cable sharply – This may close off vent tube*. *Gauge (vented) pressure sensors contain a vent tube inside the cable. If this vent tube is closed off, readings will be wrong.

58 Sensors – Installation Install in vertical position – Off vertical may introduce an offset.

59 Sensors – Installation Do not lower into mud or silt – This may clog or blind sensor.

60 Use a strain relief kit to prevent excess pulling on the cable. Sensors – Installation

61 Install so that service connector stays dry. Sensors – Installation

62 Install so as to keep desiccant dry. Sensors – Installation

63 Replace desiccant when it turns pink. Sensors – Installation Pink = Bad Blue = Good

64 Transmission Systems

65 Must – Connect to the sensors – Transmit data to a central location

66 Transmission Systems May consist of: – Radios Single sets for up to about 5 miles Repeater networks for extended coverage – Cellular Modems Anywhere that has cellular coverage Dialup modems or IP modems – Both Networks combining both radios and cellular modems offer great flexibility

67 Transmission Systems - Radios Radios

68 Typical Installation Transmission Systems - Radios

69 Base Radio connected to a PC or laptop. Remote Radio connected to sensors. Transmission Systems - Radios

70 – License free – 900 mHZ or 2.4 GHz bands – Range of 300 feet to 5 miles – Low power – run for months on alkaline batteries or virtually forever on solar power – Weatherproof enclosures designed for easy mounting – Can communicate with multiple sensors Transmission Systems - Radios

71 Sample Network 1 Radio Host, 1 Radio Remote, 1 Sensor Transmission Systems - Radios

72 Sample Network – to reach longer distance 1 Radio Host, 2 Radio Repeaters, 1 Radio Remote, 1 Sensor Transmission Systems - Radios

73 Sample Network – to avoid an obstacle 1 Radio Host, 1 Radio Repeater, 1 Radio Remote, 1 Sensor Transmission Systems - Radios

74 To think about when selecting radios: – Power Concerns – Site Survey Transmission Systems - Radios

75 Power usage depends on two things – Power requirements of radio – Time spent communicating Sample power consumption using 8 AA batteries* * May vary by brand and type of radio Transmission Systems - Radios

76 Various Types of Power Available – Alkaline Cells – Solar – Rechargeable Lead Acid Transmission Systems - Radios

77 Site Survey – You may need to do a site survey to determine exactly what you need in your radio transmission system. Transmission Systems - Radios

78 Site Survey – Do you have a clear line of site between your radios?

79 Transmission Systems - Radios Site Survey – Do you need repeaters to get around obstacles or reach a further distance? Vegetation? Buildings?

80 Transmission Systems - Radios Site Survey – Try them out to determine best location for radios.

81 Transmission Systems - Radios Live Demonstration Radios

82 Transmission Systems Modems

83 – Not limited in distance, as are radios – Allow site monitoring from anywhere phone or Internet service is available – Dial-in or Internet – Cellular or wired Transmission Systems - Modems

84 Cellular Carrier Considerations – As with your voice cell modem, data cell modems must be within a carriers coverage range for good communications Transmission Systems - Modems

85 Modems require more power than your typical radio system. – Solar – Line Power Transmission Systems - Modems

86 Auto Answer Auto Answer Serial Communications Serial Communications – Baud rate, parity, data bits, stop bits Configuring the modem… All modems will need these or similar settings: Transmission Systems - Modems

87 Telephone number Telephone number IP Address (Static or Dynamic) IP Address (Static or Dynamic) Port Number Port Number Other settings as required by your specific modem and/or carrier Other settings as required by your specific modem and/or carrier Configuring the modem… You may also need to set: Transmission Systems - Modems

88 Configuring the modem… Note that every modem and every carrier is different. You may need to refer to your modem manufacturer and/or service carrier for further information. Transmission Systems - Modems

89 IP Modems IP Modems – Communicates via the Internet Dial-up Modems Dial-up Modems – Dial in on telephone network Two modem options… Transmission Systems - Modems

90 Typical Dial-up Installation Transmission Systems - Modems Dial out from PC with modem

91 Dial Up Modems Transmission Systems - Modems Dial up modems are accessed by dialing a certain telephone number Dial up modems are accessed by dialing a certain telephone number Usually wired phone lines Usually wired phone lines

92 Modem on your computer Modem on your computer Modem connected to the sensor Modem connected to the sensor You will need… Transmission Systems - Modems

93 Typical IP Installation Transmission Systems - Modems Connect via the Internet

94 IP Modems Transmission Systems - Modems IP modems are accessed by connecting to the Internet from your computer IP modems are accessed by connecting to the Internet from your computer Usually Cellular Usually Cellular

95 Internet connection on your computer Internet connection on your computer IP modem connected to the sensor IP modem connected to the sensor (For INW modems) Cellular data account with either a static or a dynamic IP address (For INW modems) Cellular data account with either a static or a dynamic IP address (For INW modems) Serial port redirection program. (For INW modems) Serial port redirection program. You will need… Transmission Systems - Modems

96 The Internet uses IP addresses to route data to and from specific destinations. Example: The Internet uses IP addresses to route data to and from specific destinations. Example: Static vs. Dynamic IP Addresses… Transmission Systems - Modems

97 A Static IP address is a fixed number that is assigned to your modem only. A Static IP address is a fixed number that is assigned to your modem only. Static vs. Dynamic IP Addresses… Transmission Systems - Modems

98 A Dynamic IP address is an IP address that is assigned to your modem only while you are using it. It is then released for use by others. A Dynamic IP address is an IP address that is assigned to your modem only while you are using it. It is then released for use by others. Instead of a number being assigned to your modem, you would have a domain name, such as me.eairlink.com. Instead of a number being assigned to your modem, you would have a domain name, such as me.eairlink.com. Static vs. Dynamic IP Addresses… Transmission Systems - Modems

99 IP Managers and DNS servers manage the assigning of IP addresses to specific domain names as needed. IP Managers and DNS servers manage the assigning of IP addresses to specific domain names as needed. Details for this support is different with different carriers. Contact your carrier and/or modem supplier for details. Contact your carrier and/or modem supplier for details. Static vs. Dynamic IP Addresses… Transmission Systems - Modems

100 Live Demonstration Cell Modem Transmission Systems - Modems

101 Transmission Systems - Blended Blended Systems

102 Powerful, flexible systems Modems Radios = + Transmission Systems - Blended

103 Sample Network Complex network including radios and cellular modem Transmission Systems - Blended

104 Satellite Systems

105 Transmission Systems - Satellite

106 Installation Transmission Systems

107 Enclosure choice depends on: Enclosure choice depends on: – Choice of equipment (radio, cell modem, or both) – Choice of power supplies – Choice of antennas – Indoors or outdoors – Needed weather protection – Needed vandalism protection Variety of Enclosures

108 Transmission Systems Sample Single Radio Enclosure Power Switch Sensor Connection Antenna Material: Copolymer * Size approximate. Drawing not to scale. For illustration only. 5.5 x 3 x 2.5*

109 Transmission Systems Sample Radio/Cellular Enclosure * Size approximate. Drawing not to scale. For illustration only. Material: Copolymer or Fiberglass Sensor Connectors Antennas 13.5 x 11.5 x 6*

110 Transmission Systems Mounting choice depends on: Mounting choice depends on: – Enclosure type – Indoors or outdoors – Choice of antennas – Site layout Variety of Mounting Possibilities

111 Transmission Systems Sample Mounting on Wellhead – Strap to wellhead

112 Transmission Systems Sample Mounting on Pole – Strap enclosure to pole – Bury pole and strap to well head for support – Use guy wires as needed

113 Transmission Systems Above Ground Monument Radio Strap to side of well head. Use fiberglass (not steel) monument

114 Use fiberglass (not steel) flush mounted lid Transmission Systems Below Ground Monument Lid Radio Mount on bottom of lid.

115 Transmission Systems May need nearby repeater to increase transmission distance. Below Ground Monument

116 Important for Important for – Safety – Measurement accuracy Transmission Systems Grounding

117 Power spike will find path of least resistance to earth ground Power spike will find path of least resistance to earth ground – Person – Equipment – Grounding system Transmission Systems Safety

118 Natural resistance in the earth can cause current to flow between different grounding points. Natural resistance in the earth can cause current to flow between different grounding points. – Causes inaccurate readings! Transmission Systems Accuracy

119 Single ground point creates a single low resistance path to ground Single ground point creates a single low resistance path to ground – Safety! – More accurate readings Transmission Systems Solution to Both

120 Ground rod Ground rod – 6 – 8 foot copper sheathed ground rod in most locations – Sand, dry dirt, rocks, may require more – contact an engineer Surge protector Surge protector – For external antenna systems Transmission Systems

121 Seek professional help before installing your system Seek professional help before installing your system – U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission – National Electrical Code – Electrical engineer with experience in grounding issues Transmission Systems Grounding can be tricky!

122 Transmission Systems Security Physical security Physical security Data security Data security

123 Transmission Systems Use locking monuments

124 Transmission Systems Paint to match surroundings plainpaintedplainpainted

125 Transmission Systems Surround with a fence

126 Transmission Systems Install caution signs or alarms

127 Transmission Systems Passworded Software

128 Transmission Systems Encrypted communications

129 Transmission Systems Proprietary data formats and software

130 Software

131 Software – Ties system together – Controls Sensors – Controls Radios – Displays Data Software

132 Reports status of sensors and radios Software

133 Displays real time readings on demand Software

134 Controls rate and timing of data collection Software

135 Uploads and displays recorded data Software

136 Exports data to other programs Software

137 Control and notification Software If level reaches this point, start pump If level reaches this point, sound alarm

138 Live Demonstration Control Software Software

139 Live Demonstration Polling Software Software

140 Questions? Thank you for your time! Please visit us at


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