13Economy Traditionally based on herding/agriculture Mineral deposits = Foreign investorsCopper, gold, coal, molybdenum ,uranium and tinSoviet Union was a major investorAfter USSR collapse Mongolia sank into a recessionNatural Disasters(1990’s) Drought(2000’s)GDP Increase from of 30%Hit by Global Financial Crisis of 2008Moved out of crisis in early 2009GDP billion (2010)GDP Growth- 6.1%Unemployment- 11.5% (2009)Services 61%Agriculture 34% (wheat, barley, vegetables, sheep, goats, horses, cattle, camels)Industry 5% (construction, mining, oil, animal processing)
15Currency The tögrög or tugrik is the official currency of Mongolia. 5 tögrög: a piece of candy is used to make change of 5Tg10 tögrög: a couple pieces of candy200 tögrög: a ride across town on a regular bus in Ulaanbaatar250 tögrög: a 250 ml bottle of coke from a supermarket400 tögrög: average price of a bottle of water700 tögrög: the cheapest meal at a tsainii gazar, or small restaurant3000 tögrög: About what you pay for a Taxi ride across city center10,000 tögrög a lodging at a tourist hostel in UlaanbaatarThe tögrög or tugrik is the official currency of Mongolia.In 2010, the tögrög was the best-performing currency world-wide.
16HistoryFollowing unification of the Mongol tribes, Genghis Khan launches a campaign of conquest. His sons and grandsons create the world's biggest land empire.Weakened by disunity, the empire ends.The Manchu (Qing) empire conquers the southern Mongols, creating Inner Mongolia.The Qing empire offers protection to the northern Mongols, creating Outer Mongolia.The Treaty of Kyakhta fixes the western border between the Russian and Manchu empires, confirming Qing dominion over MongoliaThe Qing dynasty falls and Outer Mongolia declares its independence. Russia and the Republic of China recognise its autonomy.The Chinese army occupies Outer Mongolia.With Red Army support, Mongolian revolutionaries drive out Chinese and Tsarist forces and install the Mongolian "people's government".The People's Party chooses Lenin's "road to socialism bypassing capitalism" and renames itself the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP). The Mongolian People's Republic is proclaimed.Yalta conference agrees to preserve the status quo (i.e. Soviet control) in Mongolia. Mongolians vote for independence in a UN plebiscite. Mongolia is recognized by the Republic of China.Relations established with the People's Republic of China. Railway built across Mongolia linking Russia and China.Soviet Communist Party General-Secretary Brezhnev signs a friendship treaty in Ulan Bator allowing secret stationing of Soviet troops in Mongolia.Street demonstrations force resignation of the MPRP Politburo. Political parties are legalised. Elections to the Great Hural (parliament) are won by the MPRP, but 19 of the 50 seats in a new standing legislature go to non-communists.
19Climate Northern Hemisphere temperature zone Average altitude of 1500m above sea levelSurrounded by high mountain chainsExtreme continental climateWinter- long, cold, November-April (-13°F)Summer- hot, short, July- September (65°F)250 sunny days a yearI LOVE DICKS
21Geography Location- Northern Asia between China and Russia Area- 1,1564,116sq km(Alaska)/19th largestTerrain- semi desert; desert plains; grassy steppe; mountains in west and south west; Gobi Desert in south centralHighest Point- Nayramadin Orgil 4,370mLowest Point- Hoh Nuur 560m
30Regional Foods Consists of dairy products, meat, and animal fats Vegetables and spices limitedInfluenced by China and RussiaNomads sustained by cattle, horses, camels, yaks, sheep and goatsCook or make into soups or dumplingsAnimal fat to withstand cold and hard workUse milk and cream to make beverages and cheeseUsually cook in cast-iron or aluminum pots over small stoves; using wood or animal dung as fuelMost common dish- cooked muttonMost common beverage- Airag (fermented mare’s milk)Most common dessert- Boortsog (biscuit or cookie)“Buuz”- Meat filled steamed dumplingsVarious stews and noodle soupsMake milk liquor called Shiniin ArkhiHorse meat is eaten and found in grocery stores“Mongolian Grill”(1st American Chain in Mongolia) Is more Japanese than Mongolian
32Attractions Terelj National Park Gobi Desert Ulaanbaatar Ulaanbaatar is on the bank of the Tuul River and spreads from east to west along a large wide valley. The city is surrounded by the four mountains: Bogd Khan, Songino Khairkhan, Chingeltei and Bayanzurkh. The combination of these pine covered mountains, wide boulevards, vast public squares and parks give the city a feeling of spaciousness, while the Ger communities, Buddhist temples, and bustling marketplaces give it a rustic charm.Gandan MonasteryGandan is the largest and most important monastery of Mongolia, with over 400 monks. Inside is a statue of Magjid Janraisig (the lord who looks in every direction). It is about 25 meters tall and is covered by a huge number of precious stones.Sukhbaatar SquareThis large and famous landmark is the heart of Ulaanbaatar where the Parliament, the Government House, Stock Exchange, and many other important establishments are concentrated.Terelj National ParkTerelj, on the Terelj river bank is a spectacular valley with eroded rock formations, pine-covered mountains and grasslands carpeted with perennial wildflowers and edelweiss. It was first developed for tourism in 1964 and 30 years later became part of the 300,000 hectare Gorkhi Tereli National Park.Gobi DesertThe Gobi Desert is a vast zone of desert and desert steppe covering almost 30 percent of the Mongolian territory. The area is often imagined as a lifeless desert like in many other parts of the world. In reality, most part of the Gobi Desert is a land of steppes and it is the home for camel breeders rich with wildlife and vegetation. Dinosaur skeletons and their petrified eggs have been preserved here to the present day. Mongolians consider that there are 33 different Gobi, where sandy desert occupies only 3 percent of the total territory.
40Itinerary Day Four- Day Five- Day Six- Day Seven- Day One- Day Two- Leave LAX around 10:30pmDay Two-Arrive in ULN(Chinggis Khan International Airport) around 4:00pmCheck into Kempinski Hotel Khan Palace for two nightsDay Three-Explore Ulaanbaatar CityPicnic on the Tuul RiverVisit a Buddhist temples, and marketplaceDay Four-Vistit Sukhbaatar SquareTour the Parliament, the Government House, and Stock Exchange,Day Five-Take bus to Gandan Monastery in UlaanbaatarTake train to Terelj National Park outside UlaanbaatarTake train from Ulaanbaatar to Darhan, Erdenet, Bulgan back to UlaanbaatarDay Six-Take train to the Gobi Desert follow a tourDay Seven-Leave ULN around 8:30amArrive in LAX around 11:00pm
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