2 Growth And Development Spain is a classic example of post-1945 growth in tourism, with over 34 million tourists annually.Spain illustrates many of the problems that resort areas encounter as they reach capacity and the tendency for tourist places to drift downmarket, setting in motion a downward spiral.
3 Why Spain? Its attractive climate. Its long coastline. The accessibility of Spain to countries in North-West Europe.The competitive price of Spanish tourism, especially accommodation and dining.The distinctive Spanish culture.
4 Why Spain? Holidays based on sun, sea, and sand. Over 70% of tourists are concentrated into just 6 regions, namely the coastal areas and the Mediterranean Islands.The rapid growth of tourism has led to many unforeseen developments such as Torremolinos.
5 Problems Torremolinos has changed dramatically. Before 1960, it was a small fishing village and a tourist resort for only select tourists.However the town became popular as a centre for package tours and rapid, uncontrolled developments led to the area being swamped by characterless buildings, a lack of open space, limited car parking, and inaccessible sea frontage.Overcommercialisation, crowding of facilities such as bars, beaches, and streets, and pollution of the beach and sea also occurred.
6 ActivityLook at the following slides of information about the Costa Del Sol and link it to the Butler Model. See how development changes and the stages the area goes through over time.
7 Costa Del Sol: 1960’s Very few tourists. Farming and fishing dominated local employment.Holiday accommodation was limited with very few hotels and apartments, and some holiday cottages.There was limited access to the area and few amenities, poor roads, limited street lighting and electricity.The landscape and environment was clean, had unspoilt beaches.Warm sea with very low pollution, pleasant villages, quiet atmosphere, and little visual pollution.
8 Costa Del Sol: 1970’sRapid increase in tourism due to government encouragement.Decline in farming due to construction work, jobs in cafes, hotels, and shops.Large blocks of flats were built as well as apartments and villas.Towns became congested even though roads were improved.Bars, discos, restaurants, and shops were added.Farmland began to be built on resulting in wildlife being frightened away.Beaches and seas became less clean.
9 Costa Del Sol: 1980’sCarrying capacity was reached so tourists outstripped resources.Employment was mainly tourist related and up to 70% in some places.More large hotels built, also apartments and timeshares as well as luxury villas.The E340 highway was opened which meant more congestion in towns.Marinas and golf courses were built.Mountains were hidden by hotels.Beaches were littered and seas polluted.Crime increased such as drugs, vandalism and mugging.An increase in noise pollution.
10 Costa Del Sol: 1990’sA recession resulted in cheaper up-market hotels elsewhere.Unemployment increased as tourism decreases by 20%.Older hotels begin to look dirty and become run-down.There was a fall in house prices so only high-class hotels were allowed to be built.Bars and cafes closed and a new air terminal was opened.Attempts to clean up beaches and saes was made as well as the opening of new public parks, gardens, and nature reserves.
11 Costa Del Sol: 2005 Attracting more affluent visitors. Decrease in unemployment.Development of up-market quality accommodation.Upgrading of infrastructure that has deteriorated.20% of golf courses are found in Andalucia, an 8% annual growth.
12 Activity Using Advanced Geography P416, answer the following… What are the factors that led to the rise of Spain as a tourist resort?What factors became the demise of this holiday area?Explain your ideas of what could be done to maximise the number of tourists whilst not creating human and physical problems for the area.