2 OBJECTIVESI can explain the social, economic and political causes of the growth in tourism.I understand that holiday destinations offer a variety of physical and human attractions.I can identify the different types of holiday.I can explain the Butler model of resort development.I can use a case study of the development of an EU resort related to the Butler model - case study Benidorm, Costa Blanca, Spain.I can explain the social, economic and environmental effects of the growth of tourism in countries at different levels of developmentI can explain the negative effects of tourismI can explain the positive effects of tourismI can relate the various effects of tourism to a relevant case study - Kenya (LIC) or Benidorm (HIC)I understand what eco- tourism isI can use a case of an eco-tourist destination to show how tourism can protect the environment and benefit the local community. Case study Asa Wright Nature Centre, Trinidad.
3 1. I can explain the social, economic and political causes of the growth in tourism.
4 Describe the pattern shown on the graph (4) Things to remember:Write a paragraph analysing the graph, using dates, numbers (millions) and global regions in your answer. Try and look at the overall trends rather than writing a detailed year-by-year account. Include some simple statistics, such as the difference between 1950 and 2005 and percentage changes.
5 It has increased approximately 70 times, from about 10 million in 1950 to 700 million in Since around 1960 the rate of increase has been fairly consistent, except for a short period during the early 1980s.Europe remains the dominant international destination, but there has been a significant rise in the popularity of the Americas and Asia and the Pacific. The Middle East and Africa remain relatively insignificant.
7 2. I understand that holiday destinations offer a variety of physical and human attractions.
8 Using only evidence from the images explain why tourists may be attracted to these locations….
9 3. I can identify the different types of holiday.
10 Types of holiday…Package holiday: a holiday in which travel and accommodation are put together by a tour operator and sold as a relatively cheap package. Package holidays encourage mass tourism which is the large scale movement of tourists to popular destinations e.g. the resort of Benidorm on the Costa Blanca, Spain.
11 Other types of holidayAdventure holidays: A holiday for the purpose of challenge, exploration, skills development or thrills. Such holidays may involve an element of risk e.g. bungee jumping, white water rafting and abseiling. Backpacking holidays involve low cost, independent travel. These tourists organise their travels themselves and tend to stay in budget accommodation e.g. low cost hotels, hostels and campsites. Eco-tourism holidays a form of tourism that tries to minimise the environmental impacts of the tourists, by using local providers and resources and by keeping the profits within the local area. Educational holidays: holidays that involve learning how to cook, make pottery or wine tasting Wedding holidays: holidays that involve getting married in exotic locations. Many tour operators will arrange a package tour that includes a honey-moon and marriage ceremony.
12 4. I can explain the Butler model of resort development.
13 RejuvenationStagnationDeclineConsolidationNumber of TouristsDevelopmentInvolvementExplorationTime
14 5. I can use a case study of the development of an EU resort related to the Butler model.
15 Why there was the change StageCase study detailWhy there was the changePre 1950s- explorationFew hotels, people stayed in local accommodation and used local restaurants- natural beauty, fishing villageGlobal tourism was small scale. Very expensive for most people. Little tourist infrastructure1950s- 1960s- involvementSome more locals began to be involved in tourism, more hotels developed (2 beaches, 6200 residents)Conversion of war planes to tourist planes1960s- 1970s- DevelopmentIncrease of infrastructure- hotels built. Ownership transfers from locals to TNCs. More people employed in tourismPackage holidays developed- cheaper travel. More well known destination1970s- 1980sConsolidationPeak era for tourism in Benidorm. Tourism main form of employment. Growth of infrastructure such as high rise hotels (but little planning control)Tourism became more accessible for more people- cheaper, more free time etc..1990s StagnationAttracted a different type of tourist- larger louts. Beaches crowded, a lot of the hotels seemed old and run down. Loss of Spanish cultureMainly attracted people on price (due to poor image).- very cheap package holidays Competition for newer resorts2000srejuvinationCleaner image- cleaned beaches- Blue Flag award. Recycling of water etc Terra Mitica Theme ParkChanged image- clean up reputation wanted to attract families again.
16 Model answer Chosen study: Benidorm, Spain Answer: Benidorm was at the exploration stage of the Butler model during the 1950s. During this time British businessmen were seeking appealing locations abroad to develop as holiday destinations for British tourists. This was beginning to happen at this time as commercial air travel was becoming available and average incomes in Britain were rising. By the late 1950s Benidorm progressed to the involvement stage of the model when small numbers of tourists began arriving. The tourists loved the sunshine and the peace and quiet and news of this spread. The development stage of the model occurred during the 1960s when tourist numbers rose rapidly as a result of tour operators offering cheap package holidays to the area. Today, Benidorm is in the consolidation phase, it has transformed from a small sleepy village into a pulsating urban area of skyscraper hotels and apartment complexes. It has more or less reached peak numbers as there is little space to expand. There is some evidence of stagnation because ‘larger louts’ are attracted by cheap package holidays and many of the buildings are old, second rate and ugly- there was poor planning when the resort developed and the scenery has been blocked out. Benidorm has tried to rejuvenate by re-attracting families by building a theme park –Terra Mitica and they received an EU blue flag for clean beaches.
17 6. I can explain the social, economic and environmental effects of the growth of tourism in countries at different levels of development 7. I can explain the negative effects of tourism I can explain the positive effects of tourism 9. I can relate the various effects of tourism to a relevant case study e.g. Kenya/Benidorm
18 Effects of tourism for HICs and LICs (positive and negative) Think about key terms and key case study details: e.g. Maasai, Amboseli National Park, multiplier effect, stagnation, lager lout, package holidays, mass tourism, multinational companies.Effects of tourism: Kenya (LIC)Effects of tourism: Benidorm (Costa Blanca) Spain (HIC) p248 blue textbook for more.SocialEconomicEnvironmental
21 Eco-tourism - a form of tourism that tries to minimise the environmental impacts of the tourists, by using local providers and resources and by keeping the profits within the local area.Features of ecotourism:Aims to preserve special or precious areas as a result of their wildlife, scenery, remoteness or culture.To educate people to increase their understanding and appreciation.Minimises impact on and damage to environment and local community.Maximises local involvement – local control and benefits.
22 11. I can use a case of an eco-tourist destination to show how tourism can protect the environment and benefit the local community. Case study Asa Wright Nature Centre, Trinidad.
23 Case Study Asa Wright Nature Centre, Trinidad, West Indies. Aims to preserve special or precious areas as a result of their wildlife, scenery, remoteness or culture.Built in 1967 in the Upper Arima Valley which cuts into rainforest in the Northern Ranges of the Island. It was built to preserve the fragile rainforest ecosystem in the area. Species lists for this island are impressive, including 97 native mammals, 400 birds, 55 reptiles, 25 amphibians, and 617 butterflies, as well as over 2,200 species of flowering plants.To educate people to increase their understanding and appreciation.The nature centre aims to promote public awareness of the importance of the rainforest by allowing 2000 guests to visit a year. The tourists can use 5 designated trails within the area and local guides teach tourists about the value of the wildlife in the area. The centre is of particular interest to birdwatchers due to the 400 species that can be found including cuckoos, toucans and parrots.Minimises impact on and damage to environment and local community.Only 10% of the site is accessible to tourists. The remainder is protected so wildlife is left undisturbed.Maximises local involvement – local control and benefits.Staff members are mostly local and are given education and training. They are also offered interest free loans to help with building and renovating their homes. Prevents leakage and creates a multiplier effect
24 Examples of questions: (2009) With the use of examples explain the strategies that can be used when the stagnation stage is reached. (6) Explain why tourism has increased in the last 50 years. (3) 2010 Outline the ways in which tourism can have a negative impact on the environment. Include examples in your answer. (4) 2010 Choose a study you have made of a holiday resort in the European Union. Use the Butler model of resort development to explain how the resort has developed. (6) 2011 Describe what happens to a resort when it is at the stagnation stage (Stage 5) of the Butler model. (4) 2011 Explain the negative impacts (effects) that tourism has had on an area that you have studied. (4) 2011 Choose a study you have made of an eco-tourist destination. Explain how eco-tourism can protect the environment and benefit the local community. (6)